Metis 1679 - 1684


1679 - 1684

Virginia issued the first slave code law that would
become the standard for the Americas.

Slaves and children of slaves are bound for life (A Roman Law).

Written permission is required to carry arms or to leave
the masters land (A feudal Law).

Hudson Bay Company indentured 'Hospital Boys'

for the Bay (Hudson Bay) for terms of seven year.

This started an insidious practice that carried into the twentieth century


Charles Bayley (d-1680), Chief Factor of Hudson Bay Company, is recalled to London, being accused of unspecified irregularities by what he called 'disgruntled subordinates'. John Nixon became Chief Factor, Hudson Bay Company (1689-1683). He complained that the London born children kept pestering him and asked for country lads instead.

It is believed a trading post is built about this time at the mouth of the Kaministiquia River near Thunder Bay.

A trading post is established at Lake Temiscamingue (Timiskaming, Quebec) but abandoned in 1688.

The first French garrison is established at Michillimackinac, thirty years after the Coureurs des Bois occupied this location.

January 26: The keel of the 44 tonne Griffon was laid at the mouth of the Cayuga Creek on Lake Erie. It would be launched on August 7, as the first ship to be built on and sail the Great Lakes, of the North West.

February 1: Rene Robert Cavalier de la Salle (1643-1687) broke ground for Fort Conti at Niagara.

March: Louis Jolliet (Joliet) a Coureurs des Bois (1645-1700) is granted a fur trading concession at Mingan in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, to which d'Anticosti Island is added in 1680. This was in consideration of his discovery of the Illinois Country. He made an overland voyage to Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) this year to access the English position. The H.B.C. attempted to induce him to join them, but he declined.

March 28: Sillery, Quebec, birth, Genevieve Couturier, Metis, died March 24, 1715, Quebec, daughter Jacques Couturier b-1646, and Catherine Annennontank, Huronne, b-1649, veuve September 23, 1662, de Jean Durand (1640-1671); married October 31, 1701 Quebec, Jean Metivier

May 24: King Louis XIV (1643­1715) issued a decree to prohibit all subjects inhabiting said country, with permission to hunt in the deep woods from the 15 day of January to the 15 day of April, to carry or sell alcohol to the Native villages. The penalty for a 1st offence is one hundred livres; 2nd offence is 300 livres; and 3rd offence is corporal punishment.

July 2: Greystone, sieur de Lhut (Dulhut, Duluth) (1636-1710) at the Dakota village of Izatys on the shore of Lake Mille Lacs, claimed the area for France. Some claim he is the first European in Minnesota, New France. This is not likely.

August 7: The first ship to sail in the Great Lakes, launched by Rene Robert Cavalier de la Salle (1643-1687) on August 7, 1679, above the Niagara Falls, made only one voyage before becoming lost. La Salle and Henri de Tonty (1649-1704), the Italian, built a fort on the south shore of the Straits of Mackinac, New France, called Fort L'Arbre Croche and later called Fort St. Ignace. Daniel Greysolon (1639-1710) Monsieur Du L'hut's party visited a Sioux village on Lake Mille Lac, (Minnesota). He met a band of Assiniboine at Duluth, then wintered at Chequamegon Bay (La Pointe, Madeleine Island, Wisconsin) on western Lake Superior, North West.

September 12: The Griffon sailed from the St. Ignace mission at Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan) for Green Bay, New France (Wisconsin), to collect furs. Griffon then sailed for Niagara. Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687), however, continued south along the Wisconsin shore of Lake Michigan (aka. Lake Illinois).

September 15: Greystone, sieur de Lhut (Dulhut, Duluth) (1636-1710) claims to have met at a Grand Council with the Ojibwa, Dakota Sioux, Assiniboines, and Crees, where peace was concluded.

November 1: Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) met Henri de Tonty (1649-1704), the Italian, at the St. Joseph River at the southern end of Lake Michigan (aka. Lake Illinois) where they built Fort Miami. Both men then ascended the St. Joseph and Illinois River to Lake Peoris. Using 30 Sokoni Abenaki, they built Fort Crevecoeur on the upper Illinois. Father (I)-Louis Hennepin (1626­1705), Flemish (Belgium) Recollect friar, was part of this expedition.


Michel Accault d-1702, a French trader, married the daughter of a Kaskaskia chief while on the upper Mississippi, the next few years.

Charles Latour of Acadia had many Indian wives and Metis children one of who was Stephen Latour. He traveled the woods with 18-20 other Coureurs des Bois and had no commitment to women or children.

Virginia, issued the first slave code law that would become the standard for the Americas. Slaves and children of slaves are bound for life (A Roman Law). Written permission is needed to carry arms or to leave the masters land (A feudal Law).

During the period of 1680 to 1799, the Hudson Bay Company indentured 'Hospital Boys' for the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) for terms of seven years. Hospital boys were poor children, orphans, children from low countries, children of foreign extraction or children whose parents were unable to send them to schools. These were residential schools where children were taught to live good industrious lives in that station of life to which God called them, and education would be the means of subduing vice, irreligious and subversive tendencies which might be prevalent. Children who were not free of vermin or noise some disease are expelled. By 1684, ten Hospital Boys were on the Hudson Bay slave rolls. Their age being fourteen or fifteen years old. Cruelty, bulling and flogging were quite common, and few completed their apprenticeship.

By 1680 there were as many as 500 Coureurs des Bois in the woods around Lake Superior.

It is suggested that the Cree were capturing female Chipewyans about this time, and they were first known to the English at York Factory.

The Assiniboin are trading English goods from the Hudson Bay with the Mandan of North Dakota.

The French established 'La Compagnie du Nord' to consolidate their trade and drive the English from the North. A conference held in New France to plot the capture of the Hudson Bay Company was attended by Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710), Medard Chouart (1618-1696) of Groseillier, and all significant persons of New France.

The Iroquois (Seneca) gathered an army of 500 and added 100 Miami to march on the Illini at Fort Crevecoeur. The Illini retreated west of the Mississippi. 500 Tamora, Espeminkia and Maroua decided to stay and fight but were destroyed. This battle of the Grand Kaskaskia, (Illinois) lasted 8 days.

Daniel Greysolon (1639-1710) Monsieur Du L'hut commanded at Fort Michilimackinac, and the Reverend Father Louis Hennepin (1626-1705), the Dutch (Belgium) Recollet, attempted to claim personal credit for all L'hut's accomplishments. Reverend Father Louis Hennepin (1626-1705), a Belgium Recollet, personally claimed to have traveled from the mouth of the Illinois River down to the mouth of the Mississippi and then returned; a journey of over thirty two hundred miles in thirty days. The Natives claimed he could only make eighteen miles a day by canoe, and Francis Parkman reported that the Reverend Father is the most impudent of liars. Hennepin was noted for being vainglorious and his writings were self-serving embellishments. There is no doubt that Father Hennepin never traveled to the mouth of the Mississippi River. The Natives considered lying as the worst sort of evil. For offering La Salle's narrative as his own and for claiming to have discovered the mouth of the Mississippi, Hennepin was exiled from New France. The Church at this time believed it is important that no sinners, especially those evil Coureurs des Bois, should receive any recognition, as good cannot come from evil. The Natives, however, classed L'hut as stern and resolute in all his ways, always just, never defrauded or derided, and as always keeping his word. Even Governor Vaudreuil grudgingly stated that L'hut was a very honest man. The same could not be said of many of the other clergy.

Father Louis Hennepin (1626-1705), the Dutch (Belgium) Recollet recorded in the upper Mississippi they had killed 7-8 big wild turkeys, buffaloes, deer, beavers, fish and bears.

The Iroquois again attacked the allies of New France, including the Illinois and Miami tribes south of Lake Michigan (aka. Lake Illinois). This would continue for the next four years. Some believe the Roman Catholic Church instigated these attacks. Father Enjalran is at Green Bay, New France (Wisconsin) and Father Pierson is at Mackinaw, New France, Michigan.

At Charlton Depot, Charlton Island, James Bay is established in the Bay of the North. John Nixon of the Hudson Bay Post is instructed by London to raise pigs to economize on food.

The French report there are about 600 Coureurs des Bois corrupting the Indians with brandy and being a bad influence on the youth of the colony. Intendant Jean Talon had called them bandits, whereas the Church called them outlaws. About this time the Ojibwa Metis or Coureurs des Bois are working three independent regions. Some are migrating along the northern shore of Lake Superior, others along the south shore, and a third group are going south into the Green Bay area New France (Wisconsin) and beyond. The Lake Superior Metis normally returned to Sault Ste Marie, New France to obtain trade goods, while some returned to the St. Lawrence Valley, Quebec. Small groups of Ojibwa adopted these Coureurs des Bois and began to specialize in the fur business as middlemen to the Cree. The northern Ojibwa Metis became highly dependent on the fur trade, abandoning their agricultural roots.

A French officer described them this way: The Pedlers, called Coureurs des Bois, depart from here every year with several canoes of merchandise which they dispose of among all the Savage Nations of the Continent in exchange for beaver-skins. I saw 25-30 of these canoes (50 to 90 men) return with heavy cargoes, each canoe manned by two or three men carrying twenty hundred weight (40 packs of beaver-skins which are worth a hundred crows a piece). These canoes have been a year and a half out. You would be amazed if you saw how lewd these Pedlers are when they return, how they feast and game and how prodigal they are, not only in their cloths, but upon women. Such of them that are married have the wisdom to retire to their own homes but the bachelors act just as our East-India-Men and Pirates do. They lavish, eat, drink and play all away as long as the goods hold out. When this is all gone they sell their embroidery, their lace and their cloths. This done they are forced to go upon a new voyage for subsistence.

It is noteworthy that they were the navigators of a continent, 'the very first place' as Champlain highlighted, but they failed to carry their Christianity to the Savages. They discovered the Savages lived Christian Principles rather than preaching it's Platitudes, and they converted to the Savages ideology.

These groups of Ojibwa are organized into maternal clans, usually organized under totemic animal names.

Eastern Indian Canoes

The southern Ojibwa Metis maintained the traditional balance between trade, agricultural, fishing and hunting. Both groups retained their skills in the manufacturing of canoe and snow shoes for trade.

The French would take to the canoe like river rats. They invented names for the crew, Avant or bowman, Milieu or middleman, Gouverail or sternsman. Boutman is one who can handle the bow or stern.

Eastern Indian Snowshoes

The snowshoe is of equal importance to the canoe, one for summer travel the other for winter travel. The snowshoe was also a great trade item.

Captain Thomas Draper of the Albemarle is instructed to establish a trading post at the mouth of the Severn River in the southwestern Hudson Bay. He was warned that the Severn Indians were more rude and barbarous than the Company men were used to dealing with in James Bay. New Severn, for a time, was called Churchill Fort.

A Dutch journal states, it is said there is not an Indian Fort between Canada and Maryland where there is not a Jesuit who teaches and advises the Indians.

January 5: Rene Robert Cavalier de la Salle (1643-1687) reached the Indian village of Pimitoui on Lake Peoria. They began construction of Fort Crevecoeur. Rene Robert Cavalier de la Salle (1643-1687) with Henri de Tonty (1649/50-1704), the Italian, built Fort Crevecoeur on the Illinois River, some sixty miles from the Mississippi.

It is destroyed this year by the men who built it. Some suggest it was built and destroyed 1682.

January 5: Michel Accault (Ako) (d-1702) and Rene Calcelier, exploring south of Du Luth, built Fort Crevecoeur on the Illinois River near Lake Peoria.

February 9: Michel Accault (Ako) d-1702; Antoine Auguelle (Picard du Gray), Recollect Missionary Father; and Father Louis Hennepin, (1626­1705) Flemish (Belgium) Recollect friar, explored the Mississippi to the Dakotas.

March 1: Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle (1643-1687) departed Fort Crevecoeur for Montreal, Quebec and discovered the fate of the Griffon which disappeared in 1679, en route to Niagara. Henri de Tonty (1649/50-1704), the Italian, remained at Fort Crevecoeur.

April 11: The Michel Accault, d-1702 expedition encountered 120 Dakota, including Narrhetoba and Aquipaquestin who escorted them to their village at Lake Mille Lacs.

April 11: Father Louis Hennipen (1626-1705) and two Frenchmen, traveling to the upper Mississippi, are captured by the Dakota and carried off as slaves. The Dakota Sioux holds a Recollet, two Frenchmen, and Reverend Father Louis Hennepin (1626­1705), Flemish (Belgium) Recollect friar, captive for several months at Mille Lacs, Minnesota. These captives learned that the Assiniboin are located at Rainy Lake this year.

June: Greystone, sieur de Lhut (Dulhut, Duluth) (1636-1710) ascended the Bois Brule River from Lake Superior to its source and the St. Croix River to the Mississippi.

July: A Native guide led Daniel Greysolon (1639-1710) Monsieur Du L'hut and four French to the Brule River and Upper St. Croix Lake where they established a trading post at the mouth of the Pigeon River. Some say it was 1679 Fort Kaministiquia (wandering River), a.k.a. Caministiguya. Others say this fort was built in1683. They then traveled to the Mississippi to a Dakota Sioux village where he is informed of the enslavement of Father (I)-Louis Hennepin (1626-1705), a Belgium Recollet, and his companions, Antoine de Gay Augel and Michel Accault (d-1702). He found and freed the slaves on July 25, 1680. The city of Duluth is named after him, although Intendant Jacques Duchesneau would consider him the Chief among the Coureurs des Bois (the intent is to classify him as chief among the sinners). He remained in the Territories for the next ten years, thus avoiding imprisonment. The Dakota Sioux, who solicited trade with the French, gives Daniel Greysolon (1639-1710) Monsieur Du L'hut a birch bark map of the Mississippi.

July 22: Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle (1643-1687) at Fort Frontenac (Kingston, Ontario) learned that his men at Fort Crevecoeur mutinied and destroyed the Fort.

July 23: Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle (1643-1687) departed Fort Frontenac (Kingston, Ontario) in haste for Detroit, area of New France (Michigan) en route, learning from the Potawatoni that the Griffin had sunk in Lake Ontario in a storm.

July 25: Du Luth and four men meet Father Louis Hennepin (1626-1705), a Belgium Recollet, 220 leagues south of Mille Lacs village, returning to the village by August.

September 11: Greystone, sieur de Lhut (Dulhut, Duluth) (1636-1710) and Father Louis Hennepin (1626-1705), the Dutch (Belgium) Recollet, returned to Michilimackinac, New France to winter, and Michel Accault, d-1702, winters with the Dakota in the Indian Territory.

September 16: Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle (1643-1687) arrived at Sault Ste Marie, New France. He failed to find Henri de Tonty (1649-1704), the Italian, at Michilimackinac, New France, so he pressed on for the St. Joseph River, arriving at the ruins of Fort Crevecoeur in early December. He continued down the Illinois River to the Mississippi with still no word of (I)-Henri de Tonty (1649-1704), the Italian.


John Facher married Chippewa County, New France (Michigan), Cecilia Ottinger.

Elizabeth Nalridge had her Hudson Bay Company payments cut, as she had several bastards when her husband was in the North West Territories (Canada).

Pierre Charles Le Sueur (1672-1704) was in the western Great Lakes and at Sault Ste Marie, New France with Jesuit Father Pierre Bailloguet some time before 1681. This year he was released from jail in Montreal, Quebec for trading illegally.

King Louis XIV (1643­1715) decreed no hunting in the woods from January 15 to April 15 and no trading with the Natives. In protest, the Coureurs des Bois began a physiological campaign of rumors that the merchandise was poisoned and the plague had come to Montreal, Quebec and the Trois Riviers, Quebec.

The London Committee sent to Bottom Bay (James Bay) one male goat, one female goat, and one sow with piggy, hoping to increase the comfort of the people and for the good of the Factory, in order to reduce the need for provisions.

Governor John Nixon of Albony complained that the drunken, unruly characters sent to him were totally unfit for service. As a result, in 1682, orphan boys as young as 14 years were sent out under a 7 year indenture scheme. They had no choice.

The French King was advised that all the families in New France were engaged in trade with the Coureurs des Bois. The King granted amnesty to the Coureurs des Bois and promised to allow 25 Trade Passports yearly to 25 canoes with three men to trade with the savages. The Metis and Coureurs des Bois had effectively renounced any citizenship with France and therefore paid little attention to French dictates.

Smallpox again visited the Ojibwa at Sault Ste Marie, New France.

Jean Baptiste Colbert (1619­83), French statesman, was forced to admit failure in trying to curb the Metis and Coureurs des Bois in the west. He admitted it would be impossible to punish them all, even if it had been possible to apprehend them. Therefore, a Royal Edict was issued to all Coureurs des Bois granting amnesty, provided they return to the colony and adhere to a new trade licensing system. Twenty-five permits are to be granted for 3 men per canoe or a total of 75 men each year for the estimated 1,000 to 2,000 traders, and no one was to receive a trade permit two years in a row. One wonders who Colbert's advisors were, either that or he was on drugs. Needless to say this program was a total failure.

The majority of North Western Indians allied with the Coureurs des Bois because they were so numerous, they were in their midst, treated them as equals and married their daughters. The English refused to adapt themselves to any Indian custom or culture, and the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) was too far away to be of serious concern.

January: Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle (1643-1687) arrived at Fort Saint Joseph and encouraged the Miami and Illinois to unite against the Iroquois to help promote French interests in the area.

January 23: Charlesbourg, birth Jacques Galarneay, Metis died November 26, 1744, Ste Foye son Jacques Galarneau born 1642 and Jacqueline, Heron born 1645 epouse May 9, 1706, Montreal, Quebec, Jean Picard; married November 18, 1704 Quebec Marguerite Panneton

March 20: Lorette, Quebec, birth, Denis Joseph Couturier, Metis son Jacques Couturier b-1646 and Catherine Annennontak, Huronne, b-1649, veuve 1662 de Jean Durand (1636-1671); 1st married January 11, 1712 Becancour (Batiscan), Quebec Catherine Proteau born June 28, 1691, died March 31, 1717 Ste Anne de la Perade (dans l'eglise) dauighter (I)-Luc Proteau (1668-1752) and (II)-Marie Madeleine Germain (1670-1757); 2nd marriage February 21, 1718 Cap-Sante, Quebec, Angelique LeTellier (Tellier), b-1699, died December 7, 1729 daughter (I)-Francois Letellier; 3rd marriage April 13, 1733 Deschambault, Quebec (II)-Therese Hamel, b-1707, died March 14, 1737 St. Pierre les Becquets, veuve de Jean Tousignan, daughter (II)-Jean Francois Hamel..

May: Royal Ordinance of King Louis XIV (1643­1715) at Versailles established the Conge de Traite (Trade Passport). The Trade Passport allowed each year, 25 canoe; each manned by three men to go into the interior to trade with the Savages. An amnesty is granted to the Coureurs des Bois for fur trading in the West if they obtain a license.

The objective is to bring these sinners under control. Unlicensed fur trading, however, is still forbidden. The fine is now branding for a first offense and life in the Mediterranean galleys for a second offense. This Church inspired decree has no impact on the fur trade. This decree effectively created the Voyagers who were hired by traders under contract to fill the passport requirements. Voyagers were also called engages or Cano tiers. Voyagers are not to be confused with the Coureurs des Bois who are illegally engaged in trade without a passport. It is noteworthy that Metis are excluded from the passport requirements as they were considered savages at this time. These Trade Passports would be issued out of Montreal, Quebec, Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan) and, later, Detroit, New France (Michigan) and Louisiana.

The number of Trade Passports was increased to 400, but still was not adequate to cover the men in the field and those coming and going. This would suggest more than 1,200 legal men are conducting trade this year.

May 22: Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) started for Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan) where he finally contacted Henri de Tonty (1649/50-1704), the Italian.

Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) made claims that Daniel Greystone, sieur de Lhut (Dulhut, Duluth) (1636-1710) was involved in illegal activities in the west, calling him the 'King of the Outlaws', forcing him to return to France to clear his name in the summer of 1782. This is after he saved the LaSalle party from the Dakota.

August 11: Montreal, Quebec permit by Robert Cavelier de la Salle to sieur Rene Cavelier to equip two or three men to the countries of KIKapous, 8tagamy etc. but defense with the 8ta8ats. Copy that a clerk of Montreal, Quebec made on September 4, 1781, signed Etude Mauge

November 13: M. Du Chesneau defined two types of Coureurs des Bois: one who goes to the original haunts of the beaver, to the Assinibouets, Nadoussieux, Miamis, Illinois, and others taking 2-3 years. The second, who are not so numerous, go to Long Sault, Petite Nation, and Mackilimackinac, New France (Michigan) carrying trade goods to the Indians and French (Coureurs des Bois) in exchange for these furs. It is not easy to catch either the one or the other, as they easily receive intelligence, and the woods and rivers afford them great facilities to escape justice.

November 13: The French were advised that the Ottawa People obtained most of their furs from the Cree, Assiniboine, Ojibwa and Dakota Sioux Nations. It defies logic why the French would later encourage the Dakota Sioux to war with their neighbors. Some suggest the Europeans hate peace and love war, it being their vary nature. Some suggest this is also true of the English.

Descendants of Philippe Mius d'Azy

Philippe Mius d'Azy
B: 1660, Pobomcoup, Cap de Sable, N.S. He is the ancestor of the Indian branch of the Muise, (Muse , Meuse) Family. Philippe Mius d'Azy
M: (1) Marie Ameridian Mi'Kmaq
M: (2) Jacques Bonnevie
Both of his wives were Amerindian women and Philippe's Children lived among the "savages" on the East Coast in the 1708 census.

Children of Philippe Mius d'azy and Marie Amerindian Mi'Kmaq

Francoise Mius
B: 1678, Cape Sable, Nova Scotia
M: Jacques Bonnevie. He was born abt. 1660 and d. 23 Apr 1733

Children of Francoise Mius and Jacques Bonnevie:

Marie Charlotte Bonnevie
B: abt 1703

Jacques Bonnevie
B: 31 May 1704

D: aft 1760
M: abt 1729, Marguerite Lord in Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia. Marguerite was b. 19 Jan 1712 in Annapolis Royal, NS.

Children of Jacques Bonnevie and Marguerite Lord:

Joseph Bonnevie
B: 1730

Marguerite Bonnevie
B: 1731

Madeleine Bonnevie
B: 27 Feb 1741, Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia
M: 1758, Charles Richard who was born 1738 in Amherst, Cumberland, Nova Scotia. Charles Richard was the son of Michel Richard b.1697 in Amherst, Cumberland Co., Nova Scotia, and Madeleine Doucet b.1706 in Amherst, Cumberland Co., Nova Scotia.

Children of Charles Richard and Madeleine Bonnevie:

Charles Joseph Richard
B: 1759
M: Susanne Wulf

Children of Charles Joseph Richard and Susanne Wulf:

Adele Richard b. 1796

Charles Richard b. abt 1790

Benjamin Richard b. 1783

Ann (Nancy) Richard b. 1795

Marie Modest Richard
B: 1765

Ann - Charlotte Richard
B: 1767

Joseph Mius b.1680

Francoise Mius
B: 1681
M: Jacques Bonnevie b. abt 1660 d. 23 Apr 1733

Mathiew Mius b. 1682

Pierre Mius b. 1691

Madeleine Mius b. 1694


Children of Charles Richard and Madeleine Bonnevie:

Charles Joseph Richard b.1759
B: 28 Dec 1759, Amherst, Cumberland, N.S.
D: 1825
M: Susanne Wulf b. 1762. She was the daughter of Augustin Wulf and Catherine Querine.

Marie Modest Richard b.1765

Ann- Charlotte Richard b. 1767

Reference: Vital records , St. Peter's Church Parish Records, Halifax, NovaScotia, Canada. Text [ Listed as Joseph Richard in son Benjamin's marriage.


Children of Charles Joseph Richard and Susanne Wulf:

Benjimin Richard b.1783

Charles Richard b. abt 1790

Ann ( Nancy) Richard b.1795

Adele Richard b.1796


More about Michel Fougere.
Michel Fougere is the son Jacques Fougere b. 1759 in Nova Scotia and Marie Madeleine Petitpas b. 1765 in Nova Scotia. Notes for Jacques Fougere: Jacques Fougere b. 1759 is the son Joseph Fougere and Marguarite Coste. Marguarite Coste is the Daughter of Jacques Coste b. Nov. 10, 1705 and Francoise Petitpas b. 1706. Francoise Petitpas is the Daughter of Claude Petitpas b. 1663 in Nova Scotia and Marie Therese Amerindian (Mi'Kmaq) b. 1668 in the Indian Nation , Nova Scotia.

Notes for Marie Madeleine Petitpas:
Marie Madeleine Petitpas
B: 1765 is the daughter of Jean Baptiste Petitpas b. 1722 in Nova Scotia and Francoise Bertaud b. 1727 in Nova Scotia. Francoise Bertaud is the daughter of Pierre Bertaud and Marie MARTIN b.1695 in Nova Scotia. Marie Martin is the daughter of Pierre Martin b.abt 1662 in Nova Scotia and Anne Godin born abt1672 in Montreal, Quebec. Pierre Martin is the son of Pierre Martin b. Oct.5, 1632 and Anne Questnorouest Amerindian (Abenaki) b.1644 in the Indian Nation Nova Scotia


Notes for Abraham Gerroir:
Abraham Gerroir was the son of Luc Gerroir b.abt 1786 in Tracadie N.S and Anne Jacquet b.abt.1788 in Tracadie N.S. Luc Gerroir was the son of Francois Gerroir b. abt.1753 in Chezzetcook, N.S and Marguerite Petitpas b. abt.1767 in Chezzetcook, N.S.
More about Anne Jacquet:
Anne Jacquet is the daughter of Jean Baptiste Jaquest b. 12 July 1761 in Lavaltrie, Quebec and Agnes (Anne) COSTE born 1 april 1764 in Arichat, Richmond Co. Nova Scotia .

More about Agnes (Anne) Coste:
Agnes (Anne) Coste born 1764 in Arichat, Richmond Co. Nova Scotia is the Daughter of Claude Coste born bet.1730-1734 in Port Toulouse, Nova Scotia. and Marguerite VIGNEAU born 24 sept. 1734 in Port Toulouse, Nova Scotia.

More about Claude Coste:
Claude COSTE is the son of Jacques (Jacob) Coste and Francoise Petitpas. Francoise PETITPAS is the daughter of MARIE THERESE AMERINDIAN (MI'KMAQ)

Marie Therese
B: 1668, Mi'Kmaq Indian Nation, Nova Scotia.
D: abt.1717.
M: 1685, Claude Petitpas in 1685 in Nova Scotia.

More about Abraham Gerroir and Ludivine Fougere: Abraham Gerrior was born in 1817 in Molasses Harbour. He Married Ludivine (Divine) Fougere. She was born in 1823 in Molasses Harbour.N.S.

Children of Abraham Gerroir and Ludivine Fougere:

William Gerrior b.1847 in Molasses Harbour. N.S. He married Sophie Pellerin b. 1847 in Molasses Harbour, N.S.
Dennis Gerrior b. 1855 in Molasses Harbour N.S
Adele Gerrior b. 1858 in Molasses Harbour N.S

More about Joseph Mius :
Joseph Mius
B: 1680
D: 1729, Annapolis County, Nova Scotia.
M: 1700, Marie Amirault. Marie was born in 1684.

Brother Francois Mius
B: 1681
Became Chief of the Indians of Le Have. A Treaty was signed by Francois Mius in 1761 that is still honored today.

Children of Joseph Mius and Marie Amirault:
Joseph Muise Jr.
B: 1700

Charles Amond Muise
B: Dec 1701
D: 1795, Cape de Sable, Nova Scotia.
M: 21 Jan 1731, Marie Marthe Hebert, in Cape de Sable. Marthe Hebert was Born 1710 in Cap de Sable, Nova Scotia.

Children of Charles Amond Muise and Marie Marthe Hebert:

Barthelemy Muise
B: 1757, Baccaro, an Indian village in Cape Sable, N.S.
D: 1798
M: 1780, Madeleine Doiron in 1780 who was born 17 Aug 1763.

Children Of Barthelemy Muise and Madeleine Doiron:
Charles Muise

Genevieve Muise
B: 1786
D: 1866, Cape Jack, Nova Scotia
M: 25 Sep 1815, Jean Coste, in Tracadie, Antigonish Nova Scotia. Jean Coste was born 15 Nov 1760 in Port Toulouse, N.S

Children of Jean Coste and Genevieve Muise:

Gertrude Coste
B: abt 1820, Havre Boucher, Antigonish, N.S.
M: Louison Pellerin, son of Jean Pellerin and Pelegie Boudrot. He was b. in N.S.

Anne (Nancy) Coste
B: Abt 1825

Notes for Jean Coste:
Jean Coste is the Grandson of Francoise Petitpas b.abt 1706. Francoise Petitpas is a daughter of Marie Therese b.1688 in the Indian Nation, Nova Scotia.

Madeleine Modeste Muise
B: 1753

Jean Baptiste Muise
B: 1740

More about Jean Robert Pellerin: Jean Robert Pellerin is a son of Paul Pellerin born abt 1738 in Nova Scotia and Marie-Louise Petitpas. Marie-Louise Petitpas is a daughter of Jean Baptiste Petitpas born about 1722 in Nova Scotia and Francoise Bertaud born abt. 1727 in Nova Scotia . Francoise Bertaud is a daughter of Pierre Bertaud and Marie MARTIN born abt.1695 in Nova Scotia and died bef. 27 Nov. 1759. Marie MARTIN is a daughter of Pierre MARTIN born abt 1662 and died in 1739. and Anne Godin b. abt 1672 in Montreal, Quebec. Pierre MARTIN is a son of Pierre MARTIN born 1632 and Anne QUESTNOROUEST AMERINDIAN (ABENAKI) .

Notes for Anne Questnorouest Amerindian (Abenaki):
Anne Questnorouest was an Abenaki Indian women born in 1644 in the Indian Nation, Nova Scotia and died before the 1686 census.She Married Pierre Martin in 1660 in, Nova Scotia. Pierre Martin was born1632 in Nova Scotia.
Notes: The Names Mius (Muse,Muise, Meuse), Richard, Martin, Basque (Bastarache), Young (Lejeune), Doucette, Joseph, Bernard, Gloade (Cload, Cloade), and Gould are Common surnames among the aboriginal people in Nova Scotia.


Children of Louison Pellerin and Gertrude Coste:

Sophie Pellerin
B: 1847, Molasses Harbour
M: 12 Jan 1868, William Gerrior b. in 1847 in Molasses Harbour

Children of William Gerrior and Sophie Pellerin:

Allen Gerrior b. 04 oct,1873 d. 1950

Agnes Gerrior b. 24 nov. 1869

Simon Alfred Gerrior b. 15 Jan. 1884

Allen Gerrior
B: 04 Oct.1873, Molasses Harbour, Larry's River N.S
D: 1950, Sydney, Nova Scotia.
M: Elizabeth Jane Pellerin. She was born 15 Aug.1883 in Molasses Harbour, Larry's River N.S. and died 1951 in Sydney N.S Reference: Listed as Allan Gerrior, husband of Elizabeth Pellerin in son Jerome's Marriage Certificate, listed as Allan Gerroir in wife Elizabeth Gerroir's obituary. Census 1901, Larry's River, Molasses harbour- Dwe 038 fam 038-Allen Girrior - 26 years old -Married, occupation, Fisherman. Listed as Allan Gerrior in death certificate, Curry's Funneral Chapel, Sydney, N.S

More about Elizabeth Pellerin:
Elizabeth Jane Pellerin was born 15 Aug 1883. She was the daughter of Frederick (Bernard) Pellerin b.abt.1851 in Molasses Harbour N.S and Margaret Richard b. abt. 1858. Margaret Richard was the daughter of Luke Richard b. abt.1835 and Margaret (Lucy) Pellerin b.8 Jan 1854 in Guysborough county, N.S. Luke Richard was the son of Charles Richard and Barbara (Babbie) Coste. Elizabeth's father,Frederick (Bernard) Pellerin, is the son of Anne (Nancy) COSTE. Anne (Nancy) Coste b.abt. 1825 is the sister of Gertrude Coste b. abt 1820.

Children of Allen Gerrior and Elizabeth Pellerin:

Jerome Alfred Gerrior
B: 1908, Molasses Harbour, Larry's River, N.S. He is a descendant of Francoise Mius, Joseph Mius, Charles Amond Mius, Barthelemy Muise, Genevieve Muise, Marie Therese Amerindian Mi'kmaq and Anne Questnorouest Amerindian Abenaki. He is Many times a descendant of Francoise Mius, Joseph Mius, Charles Amond Mius, Barthelemy Muise, Genevieve Muise, Marie Therese Amerindian and Anne Questnorouest Amerindian Abenaki .

Children of Jerome Alfred Gerrior:

Stewart Gordon Gerrior
B: 27 Jun 1936, Sydney, Cape Breton, N.S.
M: Sarah Patricia Carson b. 27 Jan 1938, in Glace Bay, Cape Breton, N.S.

Children of Stewart Gordon Gerrior and Sarah Patricia Carson:

Stewart (Jerry) Gerrior
B: 16 Nov 1959, Sydney, N.S.

Darlene Gerrior
B: 07 Jul 1958, Sydney, N.S.

Notes for Sarah Carson:

Sarah (Sally) Carson was Born Jan 27, 1938 in Glace Bay, Nova Scotia. She is the daughter of Edward Carson and Jenny Seward. Edward Carson is the son of William Carson b. 1872 in Glace Bay, Nova Scotia and Sarah Campbell. William Carson is the son of David Carson and Mary Elisabeth Young born 1853 in Bras D'or, Cape Breton Nova Scotia.

Notes for Charles Richard:
Charles Richard is the Brother of Adele Richard b.1796. He is a descendant of Francoies Mius b. abt 1678. Francoise Mius is the sister of Indian Chief's Pierre Mius, Mathiew Mius and Francois Mius.


More about Mary Ellen YOUNG:
Mary Ellen YOUNG was born 1853 in Bras D'Or, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. She is the daughter of Alexander YOUNG born 1821 and Ellen BRAGG. Alexander YOUNG is the son of Gabriel YOUNG born 1797 and Mary Dauphney. Gabriel YOUNG born 1797 is the son of FRANSOIS (FRANSWAY) YOUNG and MARGARET YOUNG.

Francois ( Fransway) Young married Margaret Young on September 17, 1793 in Bras D,Or, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia.

More about Fransway YOUNG
Francois ( Fransway) YOUNG
B: 1772, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia
D: 28 Mar 1838, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. He is the son of Joseph YOUNG b. 1730 in Nova Scotia and Martine ROY b. 1738 in Nova Scotia.

NOTES: Both Joseph YOUNG and Martina ROY are buried in the Bras d'Or area, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia.

More about Margaret YOUNG
Margaret YOUNG
B: Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. She is the Daughter of Chrystome YOUNG b. 1740 in Nova Scotia and Louise HACHE GALLANT b. March 3, 1737 in Port Lajoie, Isle St. Jean Nova Scotia.

More about Martine ROY
B: Sep 1738, Nova Scotia, Canada. She is the daughter of Charles ROY born 1698 in Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia and Marie Charlotte CHAUVET born 1700 in Nova Scotia.

Notes for CHARLES ROY:
Charles ROY
B: 1698 in Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia. He is the son of Jean ROY (dit LALIBERTE) b. abt 1651 and MARIE AUBOIS born abt. 1665 in the Mi'Kmaq Indian Nation, Nova Scotia, Canada. The Name "AUBOIS" or (Of The Woods) was often assigned to the First People.

Notes for Marie Charlotte CHAUVET: Marie Charlotte Chauvet was born 1700 in Pisiguit, Nova Scotia. She is the Daughter of Charles Chauvet and Agnes JOSEPH.

Notes for Agnes JOSEPH:
B: 1686, Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia. She is the Daughter of Francois JOSEPH born abt.1655 in the Indian Nation, Nova Scotia. and Jeanne LEJEUNE born abt. 1659 in the Indian Nation, Nona Scotia.

Notes for Francois JOSEPH and Jeanne LEJEUNE:
Histoire et Genealogie des Acadien, volume # 2 states that both Francois Joseph and his wife Jeanne LeJeune were " BOTH INDIANS"

More about Joseph YOUNG:
Joseph YOUNG
B: 1730, Nova Scotia
D: after 1811, Nova Scotia. He is the son of Germain LeJeune born 1693 in LeHave Nova Scotia and Marie Guedry born abt. 1712 in Nova Scotia , Canada.

Notes for Marie Guedry:
Marie Guedry
B: abt. 1712, Nova Scotia. She is the daughter of Jean Baptiste GUEDRY born abt. 1684 in Nova Scotia ,Canada and Madeleine MIUS born abt. 1694 in Cape Sable Nova Scotia.

Notes for Madeleine MIUS:
B: abt1694 in Cape Sable, Nova Scotia. She is the daughter of Philippe MIUS D'AZY and Marie Amerindian. She is the sister of Joseph MIUS and Francoise MIUS and Chiefs Pierre Mius, Francois Mius and Mathew Mius.



Richard Denis son Nicolas Denis; married about 1682 Anne Parabego (savage).

King Louis XIV (1643­1715) of France granted a charter to New France for the Bay of the North, clearing the way for its occupation.

At this time Daniel Greysolon (1639-1710) Monsieur Du L'hut, Michel Accault (d-1702), Antoine de Gay Augelle, Lesuer, Nicholas Perrot (Pere), also Joly Coeur (Jolly Soul) (1644-1718), a Coureurs des Bois, and Jacques de Noyen are a few of the Voyagers who are working the North West Territories trading routes.

Compagnie du Nord or Compagnie Francaise du la Baie d'Hudson is established by associates Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710), Medard Chouart (1618-1696) of Groseillier, Rene Robert Cavalier de la Salle (1643-1687), Louis Jolliet (Joliette)- a Coureurs des Bois (1645-1700) and Charles Le Moyne de Longueuil et de Chateauguay (1626-1685), to challenge English control of of the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) trade. The Hudson Bay Company created Fort Nelson (York) at the mouth of the Nelson and Hayes Rivers in a swamp on the Bay of the North (Manitoba), and Fort Albany at the mouth of the Albany River, James Bay a few years earlier. Fort Nelson (York) is taken by Compagnie du Nord and Jean Baptiste Chouart. Son Groseilliers is commander in charge. York Factory is renamed Fort Bourbon, and the Nelson River is named St. Therese River. The French reported that the pelts from the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) are much better and can be obtained at a very good price. It is noteworthy that the French considered the Bay of the North as being within the domain of the French Crown.

The Committee in London was advised by John Nixon of Bottom Bay (James Bay) that the goats died and that it was more trouble raising either goats or pigs. Nevertheless, pigs and goats continued to arrive. As for the garden, turnips were a favorite as were peas, radishes, lettuce, mustard, spinach, cabbage and colewort. Spruce sap beer is consumed by the Bay men to prevent scurvy. This they learned from the Indians. London requested a bottle or two of the Spruce sap beer.

The Iroquois, feeling confident after the battle of Grand Kaskaskia, (Illinois) in 1680, attacked Fort St. Louis de la Louisiane, Illinois, fighting for 6 days and suffering heavy losses before retreating.

Henri de Tonty (1650-1704) an Italian Explorer commanded the French Fort St. Louis de La Louisiane, Illinois.

January: Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687), Henri de Tonty (1649/50-1704), the Italian, and Jacques Bourdon d'Autray (1652-1688) set out on an expedition down the Mississippi River. Rene Robert Cavalier de la Salle (1643-1687) with a party of 23 Frenchmen, 18 Abnaki and Mohegan, ten squaws and three children, in a dozen canoes, set out from Green Bay, New France (Wisconsin), for the mouth of the Mississippi.

January 23: Permit granted for a treaty with 8ta8acs by M. de Frontenac to sieur du Hautmenil and license to send a canoe equipped with 3 men. signed Etude Mauge

January 23: Permit by M. de Frontenac to M. Dollier de Casson, Superior de Seminaries de Montreal, Quebec dated January 23, 1682, to aid in the construction because of the English. Permit for a canoe and three men. Signed Etude Mauge

March 22: Agreement by permit among Edmond de Sueve, seigneur and party de Saint Anne de la Perade, Jean de Broyeux, Jean Baptiste Crevier, sieur Duvernay, de Batiscan, and Aubuchon's children, all of Montreal, subject to the conditions of M. de Frontenac sieur de Broyeux completed January 23. Permission to equip one canoe with three men in order to proceed to make relations with the Nations Outauoises. Signed Etude Adhemar

April 1: Conventions between Charles de Couaigne and Claude Tardit, merchants, owners Permit for the 8ta8as, and Antoine Villedieu, Joseph Loisel and Simon Guillory which are made equipped to exploit trade. Signed Etude Maugue

April: The Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) expedition reached the Mississippi delta. They claimed all lands that drained into the Mississippi River and its tributaries for France and named the lands Louisiana, after Louis XIV.

Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle (1643-1687) and party visited the Town of Taensas on the Mississippi; who were sun worshipers- (a form of religion found among the Aztec). La Salle had never before encountered this religion. This band also practiced human sacriface like the Aztec.

April 7: Rene Robert Cavalier de la Salle (1643-1687), Henri de Tonty (1649/50-1704), the Italian, P. Sieur D'Autray, Francois de Boisrondet, Jean Bourdon, Jacques Cauchois, Pierre You, Gilles Meucret, Jean Michel (Surgeon), Jean Mas, Jean Dulignon, La Metairie (Notary), Nicolas De La Salle and Zenobe (Recollect), reached the Gulf of Mexico. Some claim Jean du Lignon, sieur de La Mirande (1658-1690) was among this group.

April 9: Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) claimed the territory for France and named the area Louisiana. They began the return trip, on April 10, to Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan).

April 17: Conventions between Simonne Cottee, woman of Pierre Soumande, commercant, also acting in the name of François Hazeur, merchant, of Quebec, and Denis Turpin, Ignace, Herbert and Nicolas Desroches, for exploitation trade with the 8ta8ats Permit by Charles d.Ailleboust of Musseaux by Mr. de Frontenac. Signed Etude Maugue

April 22: Conventions between M. Francois Jarretde Vercheres, Joseph Perrot dit Cilledaigue, de I'ile d'Orleans, Charles de la Carmellerie, de Vercheres, and Michel Robert dit la Picard, du Cap de la Trinite, for exploitation trade with 8ta8ats, Permit by M. de Vercheres by M. de Drontenac. Etude Mauge.

May 29: Conventions between Jean Baptiste Crevier, Jean de Broyeux et Jean Aubuchon, for exploitation trade with 8ta8ats, Permit by M. de Vercheres by M. de Drontenac. Etude Mauge.

A charter and French Government sanction was granted to the Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson (North Bay) under the direction of Charles Aubert de la Chesnaye (1632-1702). It was also called Compagnie du Nord and included the following associates: (I)-Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710) and Medard Chouart (1618-1696) of Groseillier, Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle (1643-1687), Louis Jolliet (Joliet) (1645-1700); all basically Coureurs des Bois (1645-1700) and Charles Le Moyne de Longueuil et de Chateauguay (1626-1685). Their mission was to challenge the English control of the Hudson Bay trade.

June: Zachariah Gillam (1636-1682), the Boston seaman for H.B.C., set sail with five ships for the Hudson Bay. Benjamin Gillam (1662-1706) and son, in the Bachelor's Delight- a rival expedition, departed earlier. Also at sea are: Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710) and Medard Chouart (1618-1696) of Groseillier, and his son Jean Baptiste Chouart, now sailing for France under the name The North Company; all going to the Hudson Bay.

August 18: Benjamin Gillam (1662-1706) and son (non-HBC traders) reached the Nelson River and established a post.

August 20: Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710) and Medard Chouart (1618-1696) of Groseillier sailed into Hayes River.

August 26: The French discovered Benjamin Gillam in Nelson River and took his crew prisoner.

The French attack on the Hudson Bay Company is highly successful. The French captured the Bachelors Delight under the command of Ben Gillam. The sinking of the Prince Rupert resulted in the death of Zachariah Gillam and fourteen of his crew. Ben Gallium's Fort fell and his furs are confiscated. Jean Baptiste Chouart assumes control of the Hudson Bay Company forts. The prisoners sent in triumph to Quebec included Governor Bridgar and Ben Gillam of the Hudson Bay Company.

Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710) and Medard Chouart (1618-1696) of Groseillier, having secured the Hudson Bay trade, sailed for Quebec with Benjamin Gilliam (1662-1682) and John Bridgar, Governor of Port Nelson, a survivor of the Prince Rupert sinking. Jean Baptiste Chouart remained in charge of Port Nelson as its Governor.

The victors over the English, Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710) and Medard Chouart (1618-1696) of Groseillier, for their exploits, are fined and deported to France by the bumbling Joseph-Antoine Le Febvre de de La Barre (1622­88). La Barre also released the English Governor and his ships with diplomatic apologies in defiance of the French King. The Hudson Bay Company sued Chief Factor Henry Sergeant for cowardice and 20,000 pounds for the lackadaisical surrender of Fort Albany to the French.

August 30: Sorel, Quebec, baptism, Francois Couc, Metis, son Louis Couc dit Montour, born 1659, Metis, and Madeleine Sacokie, 2nd married, Louis, January 7, 1688, Saint Francis du Lac a Jeannie Quigesig8k8e, born 1656.

October 21: The British H.B.C. ship, Prince Rupert I, sank October 21, 1682 near Port Nelson. Zachariah Gillam (1636-1682), the Boston seaman, and nine crew members are drowned.

December 30: Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle (1643-1687) returned to the Illinois River and built Fort Saint Louis de la Louisiane, Illinois, near the town of La Salle.


Jean Fafard married Chippewa County, New France (Michigan), Marguerite Couc.

Antoine Laumet de La Mothe Sieur de Cadillac (1658-1730) arrived New France.

Daniel Gretsolon sieur Dulhut established Fort Caministigoyan (Thunder Bay, Ontario.

Pierre Charles Le Sueur (1672-1704) was with a convey of 15 canoes from Montreal, Quebec to Green Bay, New France (Wisconsin) and the Mississippi.

Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710) could no longer trust the French and again switched sides to the English to again secure the Bay of the North's trading positions between France and England until his death in about 1710. He convinced the French Governor Jean Baptiste Chouart to turn the Hudson Bay over to the English. The French put a price on Radisson's head but he traded Hudson Bay until 1686 when he retired to London where he died 1710.

Jacques hired Pierre Vaux in partnership with Jean Lefevre and Jean Dupuy for le voyage des 8ta8ats. His father-in-law Jacques arrived, and his son-in-law's father Jacques Hubert were hiring men during the 1690's for le voyage des 8ta8ats.

It is reported that 60 Coureurs des Bois are trading with the Dutch and English, and that greatly irritated the French.

The Chief Factor of the Hudson Bay is Henry Sergeant (1683-1686). The first English woman wife of Henry Sergeant arrived in James Bay with her companion, Mrs. Maurice, and their maid. As a result, the Hudson Bay created a policy that reads: Upon forfeiture of wages not to suffer any women to come within any of our factories. It would be three centuries before a woman is placed in charge of a Hudson Bay post or store. The London head office instructed Chief Factor Henry Sergeant (1683-1686) at Albany to treat the Indians with justice and humility but not to fraternize with them. This ruling is based on a belief that Indian woman would prejudice the company affairs by debauching the servants, embezzling goods and exhausting provisions. Oliver Morel de La Durantaye (1640/44-1716) with 30 French soldiers, took command of Fort Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan) until 1690.

Bumbling Governor, Le Febvre de La Barre of New France, wrote: There are 60 miserable French deserters (Coureurs des Bois) at Orange, Manatte and other Dutch places under English command, more than half of whom deserve hanging. Fur smuggling is still carried out at Fort Frontenac (Kingston, Ontario) and Fort Chambly in spite of ordnances protesting the trade and it carries the death penalty.

Intendant Jacques de Meulles d-1703 reported that the citizens of New France only attend mass 3-4 times a year.

Father Philippe Pierson, a Galle-Beggian (1642-1688) is claimed to be with the Nadouessious who live 100 leagues beyond Lake Superior.

February 1: A four point decree is issued in New France:

Merchants are forbidden to go to Trois Riveres, Montreal or other places on the Upper River for the purpose of selling or delegating the sale of merchandise, in large or small quantities, to the French or Natives, directly or indirectly, and they are not allowed to be present in such locations from June 1st to the last day of October.

No owner of a dwelling above the city of Montreal, or any other city, is allowed to prevent Natives, directly or indirectly, from getting to the location of the fair, nor to stop them upon their return, under what ever pretext.

When Natives are in Montreal for the purpose of trading, it is forbidden to influence where and with whom they trade. They must be left entirely free to go trading where or with whom they wish (within those authorized merchants of Montreal).

No person without a family, except children of the land (Metis), is allowed to trade with the natives for his own profit or someone else's, also under penalty of a fine of 200 livres.

March 27: In Quebec an agreement between Francois Chorel de Saint Romain merchant at Champlain, Jean Baptiste Mongoden de Bellefontaine, Francois Poisson and J. Aubuison de Saillies permit to send two canoes of 3 men each to voyage to the country of 8ta8tois.

May: The Iroquois attacked the Indian allies of France and demanded the expulsion of Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle (1643-1687) from Fort Saint Louis.

August: Louis Henri de Baugy took command of Fort Saint Louis on Governor Le Febvre de La Barre's orders. Fort Crevecoeur on the Illinois River, some sixty miles from the Mississippi, being destroyed in 1861, is rebuilt and named Fort St. Louis (also called Fort Pimiteoui).

September 2: Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle (1643-1687) is ordered to France by bumbling Governor Le Febvre de La Barre out of fear that La Salle, a Coureurs des Bois, might threaten the fur business to Montreal, Quebec.

November: Claude Greystone de La Tourette (1660-1716) built Fort Tourette at the mouth of the Omababika River on Lake Nipigon.


Vincent d'Abbadie de St. Castin a pirate out of Acadia married Matilda Pidiwanskie (Abenaki) and had two known children, Anselme St. Casten, Metis b-1685 and Joseph Robardis St. Casten, Metis.

Nicholas Perrot (Pere) dit Turbal, a.k.a. Joly Coeur (Jolly Soul) (1641/44-1717/188), a freeman ( Coureurs des Bois) who was humbled by Simon Francois Daumont de Saint Lusson, d-1677, in 1671, is asked by Governor Lefebvre de La Barre to join a peace mission to recruit several hundred warriors to fight the Iroquois. You would think that, once burnt by the French, Perrot would not accept this commission. He and Daniel Greystone with their army of Western Nations on their way to Fort Niagara learned that to make peace with the Iroquois, La Barrie had sacrificed the Western Nations. This would have a profound impact on his credibility with the Western Nations.

Francois Marie Perrot (1644-1691) is transferred to Acadia as Governor (1685-1687).

Chief Factor Verner of Fort Rupert applied for permission for his wife Elinor to join him but it is denied by the H.B.C.

The English had been supplying guns to the Cree and Assiniboine to keep the other Indian tribes in line; so claimed the French who also supplied arms in trade. This traditional divide and conquer mentality would inflict much harm between the Dakota Sioux and their neighbors.

This year the H.B.C. shipped 300 flintlock muskets, 2,000 iron axes, 2,160 kaolin tobacco pipes, 3,000 tack knives and 5,000 butcher knives to Albany as trade goods.

Henry Kelsey (1667-1724),an apprentice clerk, arrived the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) with Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710) and Medard Chouart (1618-1696) of Groseillier. Henry Kelsey (1667-1724) was indentured at age seven or eight to the Company and, as a young boy, is eager to understand the Natives. This is unusual for an Anglo or Saxon, although some contend he is part Celtic (Irish). He learned Cree fluently and could communicate in Assiniboine. Henry Kelsey (1667-1724) would spend the next 40 years (save 3 years) in the employ of the H.B.C.

Charles Greysolon de la Tourette built Fort La Maune on the north west shore of Lake Nipigon to stem the shift of trade to the English. Both the Cree and the Assiniboine traded this Post.

Daniel Greysolon (1639-1710) Monsieur Du L'hut mentioned visiting the Nipigon River and Lake Ontario. Greysolon is assigned responsibility for establishing peace between the Dakota Sioux and Assiniboine tribes. Others suggest the Ojibwa established the peace. The Cree and Assiniboine are becoming the middlemen in the fur trade, selling to both the English and French. They had previously traded with the Ojibwa and Ottawa. Nicolas Perrot (Pere)(1644-1718) is at Green Bay, New France (Wisconsin) this season.

March 21: Henri de Tonty (1649-1704), the Italian, and Louis Henri de Baugy repulsed an attack by the Iroquois on Fort Saint Louis de la Louisiane, Illinois.

April 10: An ordinance is issued prohibiting emigration from New France to the English colonies with a penalty of death.

April 14: The bumbling Governor Le Febvre de La Barre is humiliated when King Louis XIV (1643­1715) orders him to restore Fort Frontenac (Kingston, Ontario) to Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle (1643-1687). La Salle was also commissioned to colonize the Mississippi Delta

July 30: Governor Le Febvre de La Barre set out from Montreal with 700 French soldiers and 400 Indians to deal with the Iroquois.

August 29: The Iroquois were encountered by the French/Indian alliance at Famine Cove on Lake Ontario.

September 5: The Treaty of Famine Cove is achieved with peace between the French, the Iroquois and the Miamas, but not with the Illinois.