Sri Lanka Genealogy Website – HISTORY 

Kings & Rulers of Sri Lanka 

0. KUVENI, Queen of Heladipa (later became Sinhala Dipa), succeeded her father as Queen and ruled the island before the arrival of Vijaya 

1. VIJAYA  544-505 BC - In the fifth century Prince Vijaya and seven hundred of his followers landed in Sri Lanka in the region called Thambapanni near Puttalam. He established a monarchy and named the new race of people Sinhala (Lion Race) after his grandfather, who was perhaps a man nicknamed as “lion”. (the Mahavansa [Great Dynasty] & the Chulavansa [Lower Dynasty]. The entire chronicle covers a time period between 483 BC - 1825 AD) 

Vijaya was the founder of the first dynasty in Sri Lanka. His grandmother, Suppa Devi, was the daughter of the King of Bengal. She had twins, a boy and a girl, most probably fathered by a bandit nicknamed “LION”, who had carried her off and lived in a cavern. At the age of 16 the boy ran away with his sister and mother, entered a forest, and after walking for four days, sighted a hamlet and staggered into the midst of its inhabitants. The people of the village, seeing the weariness and tiredness of the strangers, escorted them to their chief who welcomed them, fed them, and gave them comfortable bedding. The following day they were taken to the King and he learned from the mother that she was Princess Suppa Devi.  

The King, who had been a very close friend of her father, informed her that both her parents had died some years ago, and, since he had no children of his own, invited Suppa Devi to live with him as his daughter and her children as his grandchildren. Six months after the adoption of Suppa Devi and her children by the King the territory was under invasion and attack by a ruthless and fierce enemy. The bandit (LION) had come to take his wife back from the King. The bandit killed each and every soldier that confronted him in battle and finally met his own son in combat who killed him. The people of the land, so pleased with the boys prowess of killing the enemy so bravely, named him SINHA BAHU meaning “The Lion Slayer”. The old King was also pleased with his adopted grandsons bravery and courage and named him the heir to the throne. Sinha Bahu returned to the country of his birth, Lala (Gujarat), where he established a kingdom and founded a city named Sinhapura (Lion City). 

On the death of the old King Sinha Bahu became King and married his sister. They had many sons of whom the eldest was Vijaya. He was a problem child and the King was very disturbed by his behavior. By the time he was eighteen years old Vijaya was even more than a problem child. He was the sole disruptor of the peace and contentment of the people. The King, having thought of the safety of his throne, decided to banish Vijaya and his followers. Their heads were shaven like criminals except for the strand at the back which was left uncut. Vijaya and his seven hundred followers were boarded into an anchored ship without rudders. The ship landed at a spot near Puttalam in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and was named TAMBAPANI by Vijaya on account of the copper color of the earth and planted a flag with a Lion symbol on the very day the Buddha had died in Kusinara. 

At this time, Kuveni, a wise and learned woman had succeeded her father as ruler of Heladipa (Lanka). She was told of the arrival of Vijaya and his followers and on meeting him fell in love with him and were united and blessed by Sandu the moon goddess. Preparations were made for the wedding according to the ancient rites and ceremonies of the people of Heladipe. An elderly man of the tribe conducted the ceremony and a hundred throbbing drums proclaimed that Kuveni, Queen of Heladipa, was wedded to Vijaya, the Aryan Prince. The coronation ceremony of the King followed the marriage. 

Vijaya and Kuveni reigned as King and Queen of Heladipa for five years and their subjects were happy and contented. They had a son and a daughter.  Vijaya abandoned Kuveni and his two children to marry an Aryan Princess from a Royal family to whom he had been betrothed before he was banished from his homeland. He made her his new Queen of the Island of Heldaipa (Lanka). His followers married women from the land of this Queen and from this union sprang the Sinhalese race. The name Heladipa was changed to Sinhadipa. 

Kuveni, broken hearted and alone, cursed Vijaya, his Kingdom and all the future rulers of the Island stating that no ruler would ever be able to rule the land without bloodshed and strife. She then went back to her people and was received with a hail of stones. She fell to the ground and lay in a heap as the stones pounded the life out of her. After the death of Queen Kuveni, under the hands of her own kinsmen whom she had earlier betrayed, her son and daughter escaped to the jungle and started a progeny, the SABARAS, the present day Veddahs. 

Vijaya did not have the expected son from his new Aryan Queen and died without an heir. He reigned with perfect justice for thirty eight years. 

2. UPATISSA 505-504 BC – The Chief Minister of Vijaya – He took over as Regent as Vijaya died without an heir. He governed for one year until the arrival of Panduvasudeva, the younger son of Vijaya’s brother, Summitha. 

3. PANDUVASUDEVA 504-474 BC – Son of King Vijaya’s brotherPrince Panduvasudeva arrived accompanied by thirty two noble youth. Princess Buddhakachchana, daughter of a King named Panda, from an ancient Royal family, a cousin of the Buddha also arrived from Vijaya’s homeland with thirty two female attendants. Prince Panduvasudeva and Princess Buddhakachchana were married and duly concesrated as the second King and Queen of Lanka. The king gave his thirty two noble men in marriage to the queen’s thirty two attendants. 

The King had ten sons, the eldest named Abhaya, and one daughter names Ummadha Citta. 

A court Brahimn (learned astrologer) predicted that the son who will be born to Princess Citta will destroy his uncles. The sons of King Panduvasudeva held a meeting led by the second son Tissa and planned to kill their sister, Princess Citta. The eldest son, Abhaya, did not approve of such an extreme and cruel action, and with the consent of his father, the King, ordered her to be placed in solitary confinement. She was placed in a chamber adjoining the King’s own private chamber and the Queen’s personal maid, Cetiya, was entrusted with the task of taking care of the infant princess. 

As the years went by Princess Citta grew into a beautiful woman. Shortly after her sixteenth year she was looking down at the garden from her chamber window and saw her brother Prince Tissa talking to a stranger under a tree. She asked Cetiya, her maid, who this man was and was told that he was Prince Dighagamini, the ruler of a neighboring state. The princess expressed her desire to meet this Prince and the maid Cetiya arranged this and a meeting took place between them. Soon, it was discovered by Citta and Princess Cetiya that the Princess was pregnant. Princess Citta confided this situation to her brother Prince Abhaya and he then learned that the person responsible was his own cousin Prince Dhigagamini. 

Abhaya told his father the story and persuaded him to marry the princess to Prince Dhigagamini. The King agreed. Abhaya next told his brothers who were all furious with anger. Tissa proclaimed that if Citta’s child was a boy he would kill him immediately. Citta, in her attempt to protect her child should he be a boy, planned to substitute a female newborn child in the place of hers if her child was a boy which was the case. Her new born son was smuggled out of the palace and a new born female child was substituted in his place. Her mother the Queen and the maidservant Cetiya, both, agreed to help in this caper. The newborn son was spirited away into the safe and secluded territory of the Ruhuna (south of the Island). A female newborn child was substituted in his place by the side of Citta. The King was overjoyed at the birth of his granddaughter and named her Canna, after her grandmother. 

The boy, now growing up in distant Ruhuna, was named Pandukabhaya, a combination of the names of Citta’s father, Panduvasudeva, and her eldest brother Abhaya, who had been her lifelong friend and savior.  The reservoir, Abhaya Wewa, was built during their reign in the year 505 BC. The King died after a peaceful ad prosperous reign of thirty years. His sea of government, during this reign, was Vijitapura. 

4. ABHAYA  474-454 BC – Eldest son of King PanduvasudevaOn the death of King Panduvasudeva his ten sons assembled together and chose Prince Abhaya, the oldest among them, to be the Sovereign of Lanka. Princess Ummada Citta’s cunning plan to conceal her son from her wicked brothers did not remain a closed secret for very long. They tried hard to seek him and kill him but failed. King Abhaya was accused by his brothers for having connived and helped their sister protect her son Pandukabhaya. Thus he was deposed and the second son, Prince Tissa, was given the throne. 

5. TISSA  454-437 BC – Second son of King Panduvasudeva, younger brother of King Abhaya – He was appointed the regent by his eight younger brothers after the deposition of the oldest brother, King Abhaya, from the throne. Tissa claimed that he would be consecrated king only after he had finally defeated his nephew Pandukhabaya. This, however, was not to be as Pandukabhaya swept on triumphantly. Tissa was slain in battle along with all his eight younger brothers. Abhaya was spared. Pandukabhaya, the undisputed victor, called upon his uncle Abhaya to take up the throne again. Abhaya declined. 

6. PANDUKABHAYA  437-367 BCGrandson of King Panduvasudeva, Son of Princess Umaddha Citta, Nephew of King Abhaya and Prince Tissa – Umaddha Citta had entrusted the education of her son, Pandukabhaya, to a Brahmin by the name of Pandula. This Brahmin made his own son, Canda, the fellow student of the Prince and the two became good friends. Pandukabhaya married a beautiful princess named Swarnapali (Pali), daughter of Girikandasiva, an uncle of his who was governing the territory of Girikandaka. They were consecrated King and Queen of Lanka. 

Pandukabhaya founded the city of Anuradhapura and the seat of government was moved to the new city. He appointed his friend, Canda (son of his Brahin teacher), to the office of Adigar (Minister). He also appointed his uncle Abhaya, Mayor of the city. To his father-in-law Girikandasiva he restored the city of Girikandaka. He devoted much of his time to the the adornment and civil government of the new capital city of Anuradhapura. Agriculture too received his due share of attention. He constructed the Jaya Wewa and Gamini Wewa. Magnificent was the tolerance and encouragement of all religious systems during this period of Lanka’s history. He also built a special palace for his mother, Umaddha Citta, at Anuradhapura. He died after having reigned for seventy years. 

7. MUTASIVA  367-307 BC – Son of King Pandukabhaya - 

8. DEVANAMPIYA TISSA  307-267 BC – second Son of King Mutasiva – His close friendship with Emperor Asoka in India led to the introduction of Buddhism by Mahinda in 247 BC. Their Sangamitta arrived with the branch of the Bodhi Tree from Buddha Gaya. The tree still exists as the oldest historical tree in the world. She also established the order of the Bhikkuni’s (Nuns) 

9. UTTIYA  267-257 BC – Brother of King Devanampiya Tissa - 

10. MAHASIVA  257-247 BC – Second (younger) brother of King Devanampiya Tissa - 

11. SURATISSA  247-237 BC – Younger brother of King Mutasiva 

12. SENA & GUTTILA  237-215 BC – Two Tamil Chief’s, horse dealers, joint rulers who came from South India, killed King Suratissa and usurped the Sinhalese throne at Anuradhapura (first historically reported account of Tamil rule in Sri Lanka) Sinhala rule was re-established in 215 BC 

13. ASELA  215-205 BC – Youngest (ninth) brother of King Devanampiya Tissa, younger brother of King Suratissa regained the kingdom from the Indian invader

14.  ELARA  205-161 BC (the Just) – A Tamil Prince of the Chola Dynasty from South India ruled the country for 44 years after invading Anuradhapura and killing King Asela – During this period of rule by the Tamil King Elara whio ruled from Anuradhapura, the capital of Raja Rata (King’s Territory), there were two Sub-Divisions of the Island known as Maya Rata to the South West and Ruhuna to the South East. They were administered by Sub-Kings who were loyal subjects and supporters of the supreme Monarch. At the time Elara ruled at Anuradhapura, Kelani Tissa was king of Maya Rata and Kavan Tissa was king of Ruhuna. Elara was a just ruler, and though a Hindu, was tolerant of Buddhism. The tank situated in the Northern Province called Vanunik Kulam was also constructed by him. He ruled over Lanka for forty four years when he was slain in battle by Prince Dutu Gemunu (Dutta Gamini) in 161 BC. At this time the south of the island was ruled by King Kavantissa. 

15a  KELANI TISSA – Mahanaga who established a local sovereignty at Magama devoted his time to religion. The Tissa Wewa of the Southern Province was constructed by him. He was succeeded, at his death, by his son Yatalaka Tissa who fixed his Capital at Kelaniya and built the Kelaniya Dagaba. On the death, Yakalaka Tissa was succeeded by his son, Gotabhaya, who went to Magama to reign at his grandfather’s capital, leaving a Kshatriya by the name of Kelani Tissa, to reign at Kelaniya. 

15b  KAVAN TISSASon of Gotabhaya succeeded his father on his death at Magama. He built many edifices in different parts of his kingdom for the cause of religion amongst which is the Tissa Maha Vihara and the Dighavapi Tank. Neither of them even contemplated war against Elara as they believed he was too powerful to be confronted and defeated. 

16. DUTU GEMUNU aka DUTTA GAMINI or GAMINI  161-137 BC – Eldest son of King Kavan Tissa of Ruhuna, (originally the ruler of the southeastern kingdom of Ruhuna), took power from Elara by killing him in battle after a 15 year campaign -  

17. SADDHA TISSA  137-119 BC – Brother of King Dutu Gemunu - 

18. THULLATTANA (Tulna)  119 BC – Second son of King Saddha Tissa ruled for 1 month and 10 days - 

19.  LAJJA TISSA  119-110 BC – Older brother of King Thullattana, oldest son of King Saddha Tissa - 

20. KHALLATANAGA (Kalunna)  110-104 BC – Brother of King Lajja Tissa, third son of King Saddha Tissa - 

21. VALAGAMBAHU I  104 BC – (Vattagamini Abhaya), fourth son of King Saddha Tissa - 

22. PULAHATHA  103-100 BC – Tamil Chief – Reigned supreme for three years and was murdered by his Chief Minister, Bahiya. 

23. BAHIYA  100-98 BC – Chief Minister of Pulahatha – Ruled for two years with the Chief Panayamara as Prime Minister who also murdered him and took power. 

24. PANAYAMARA  98-91 BC – Prime Minister of Bahiya – Reigned for seven years and was murdered by his Chief Minister,  Piliyamara 

25.  PILAYAMARA  91 BC – Chief Minister of Panayamara – Reigned for seven months and was murdered by his Chief Minister, Dathiya  

26. DATHIYA  90-88 BC – Chief Minister of Pilayamara – Reigned for two years before he was killed. 

27. VALAGAMBAHU I  88-76 BC – Fourth son of King Saddha Tissa (137-119BC), restored the dynasty of King Dutu Gemunu – It was during his rule that a dissention amonhst the priesthood between Mahavihara and Abhayagiri Vihara. One memorable event was the writing down of the Tripitaka texts in Pali at the Aluvihara Temple at Matale. 

28. MAHA CULA MAHA TISSA  76-62 BC – Son of Khallatanaga (110-104BC), nephew and adopted son of Valagambahu I - 

29. CHORA NAGA (Mahanaga)  62-50 BC – Son of Valagambahu I, cousin of Maha Cola – He succeeded his cousin, Maha Cola, after his death. Lanka is said to have suffered a famine during this era. Cora Naga was killed with poisoned food given to him by his consort Anula after a reign of twelve years. 

30. KUDA TISSA  50-47 BC – Son of Maha Cula Maha Tissa – After the death of Cora Naga, Kuda Tissa seized the throne and made himself king and took Anula as his Queen. After an uneventful reign of three years Anula developed a passion for Siva, the senior gate porter at the King’s Palace, poisoned the king and ascended the throne as the FIRST QUEEN of Lanka. 

31. Queen ANULA  47-41 BC – Widow of Chora Naga and Kuda Tissa, first Queen of Lanka – She made Siva, the palace porter as her consort. Subsequently she poisoned Siva and lived with an Indian carpenter, Vatuka, a firewood carrier Dharubatissa, and a palace priest named Neeliya, all of whom she poisoned, till she finally ruled the country alone and continued tolive an infamous life four months. She was burnt alive by Kuttakanna Tissa, the second son of Cula Maha Tissa, who found that he had the backing of all of the people of Lanka to puit an end to such an ignominous sovereign. 

32. KUTTAKANNA TISSA  41-19 BC – Brother of Kuda Tissa (50-47BC), second son of Maha Cula Maha Tissa (76-62BC) -  

33. BHATIKA ABHAYA  19 BC-9 AD – Bhatika Tissa, son of Kuttakanna Tissa -  

34. MAHA DHATIKA MAHA NAGA  9-21 AD – Brother of Bhatika Abhaya - 

35. AMANDA GAMINI ABHAYA  21-30 AD – Son of Maha Dhatika Maha Naga – built Ridi Vihara 

36. KANIRA JANU TISSA  30-33 AD – Brother of Amanda Gamini Abhaya - 

37. CHULABHAYA  33-34 AD – Son of Amanda Gamini Abhaya (21-20AD) - 

38. QUEEN SIVALI  34 AD – Sister of Chulabhaya – ruled for 4 months 

39. ILA NAGA  34-44 AD (Elunna) – Nephew of Queen Sivali – built Tissamaharama (Naga Maha Vihara) 

40. CHANDHRAMUKA SIVA  44-52 AD – Son of Ila Naga – slain by younger brother Yasalaka Tissa 

41. YASALAKA TISSA  52-60 AD – Younger brother of Candhamuka Siva - 

42. SUBHA  60-66 AD – The hall porter of King Yasalaka Tissa - 

43. VASABHA  66-110 AD – A member of the Lambakanna clan – raised the wall around the city of Anuradhapura and built eleven tanks 

44. VANKANASIKA TISSA  110-113 AD – Son of Vasabha during this period a Chola named Karikkal invaded the country and took away 12,000 Sinhalese to work on the irrigation project of the Kaveri river in South India 

45. GAJABAHU I  113-125 AD – Son of Vankanasika Tissa – invaded the Chola kingdom and brought back the 12,000 Sinhalese plus another 12,000 Chola captives. He also brought back the tooth relic of the Buddha and introduced the Pattini cult to Sri Lanka. 

46. MAHALLAKA NAGA  125-131 AD – Father-in-Law of Gajabahu I - 

47. BHATIKA TISSA  131-155 AD – Son of Mahallaka Naga - 

48. KANITTHA TISSA  155-183 AD – Younger brother of Bhatika Tissa - 

49. KHULA NAGA  183-185 AD – Son of Kanitta Tissa - 

50. KHUDA NAGA  185-186 AD – Brother of Cula Naga – grate famine “EKANALIKA” occurred during this era 

51. SIRI NAGA I  186-205 AD – Brother-in-Law of Kuda Naga  and Commander of the troops – placed a parasol over the MahaThupa and rebuilt the Lova Mahapaya up to five storeys and also added 4 entrances to the Bodhi Tree 

52. VOHARIKA TISSA  (Vira Tissa) 205-227 AD – Son of Siri Naga I – suppressed heresies and checked Vaitulya doctrine 

53. ABHAYA NAGA  227-235 AD – Brother of Voharaka Tissa - 

54. SIRI NAGA II  235-237 AD – Son of Voharaka Tissa (205-227AD) - 

55. VIJAYA KUMARA  237-238 AD – Son of Siri Naga II - 

56. SANGHA TISSA  238-242 AD – A Lambakanna - 

57. SIRI SANGHA BODHI I  242-244 AD – A Lambakanna – epidemic occured 

58. GOTHABHAYA  244-257 AD – Minister of State, a Lambakanna seized the Capital. King Sangha Bodhi fled to the forest. Abhayagiri monks succeeded to the Dhakkina Valley. A new sect called Sagaliya was formed. A price was offered for the Kings head and he surrendered himself 

59. JETTHA TISSA I  267-269 AD – Eldest son of Gothabhaya - 

60. MAHASENA  (Maha Sen) 269-296 AD – Brother of Jettha Tissa, younger son of Gothabhaya – a period of religious dissention followed. The Maha Vihara Bhikkus were persecuted and left abandoning the Maha Vihara for 9 years. Lovamahapaya was destroyed. Later the King became reconciled and Maha Vihara was repaired. He built 17 tanks. 

61. KIT SIRI MEGHAVANNA  (Kit Siri Mevan) 296-324 AD – Son of Mahasena – Sacred Tooth Relic was brought back from Kalinga by Princess Hemamali. He built a 3-storey Aramaya at Bddha Gaya for the monks 

62. JETTHA TISSA II  324-333 AD – Brother of Kith Siri Meghavanna - 

63. BUDDHADASA  333-362 AD – Son of Jettha Tissa II - 

64. UPATISSA I  362-404 AD – Eldest son of Buddhadasa - 

65. MAHANAMA  404-426  AD – Brother of Upatissa I - 

66. SOTTHISENA  426 AD – Mahanama’s son born to a Tamil mother - 

67. JANTU  (Lamani Tissa) 426-427 AD – Husband of Sangha, daughter of Mahanama by his Sinhala Queen  

68. MITTA SENA  427-428 AD - A noted plunderer – rule of Lambakanna Dynasty ended here 

69. PANDU  428-433 AD – A Tamil invader, the first of this era - 

70. PARINDA  433 AD – Son of Pandu, second Tamil ruler - 

71. KHUDA PARINDA  433-449 AD – Younger brother of Pandu, Third Tamil ruler during this period - 

72. TIRITARA  449 AD – Fourth Tamil ruler – was defeated and slain by Dhatusena within 2 months 

73. DATHIYA  449-452 AD – Fifth Tamil ruler - was defeated and slain by Dhatusena after a war lasting 3 years 

74. PITHIYA  452 AD – Sixth Tamil ruler - was defeated and slain by Dhatusena at the end of 7 months and with this the Indian dynasty was extinguished 

The latter Anuradhapura Period 

75. DHATUSENA  452-470 AD – Son of Sangha, the daughter of Mahanama. liberated Anuradhapura from 27 years of Pandyan (Tamil) Rule – He improved agriculture by building tanks like the Kalawewa. During his reign an uncle priest of the king completed the Pali Mahavamsa. His two sons Kasyapa and Mogallana quarreled over succession and Kasyapa seized power while Mogallana fled the country. 

76. KASYAPA  470-488 AD - son of King Dhatusena by a Pallava woman, killed his father and moved his capital from Anuradhapura to Sigiraya. He was later dethroned by his exiled brother, Mogallana, who returned the capital to Anuradhapurabuilt the famous rock fortress at Sigiriya and also adorned the rock cave faces with the world famous paintings of Sigiriya. His rule ended when his brother Mogallana returned with an army from India and he committed suicide during this battle. 

77. MOGALLANA  (Mugalan) 488-506 AD – Son of Dhatusena, brother of Kasyapa - 

78. KUMARA DHATUSENA  (Kumaradasa) 506-515 AD – Son of Mogallana - 

79. KIRTI SENA  515 AD – Son of Kumara Dhatusena – ruled for 9 months and was murdered by his maternal uncle, Siva 

80. SIVA  515 AD – Uncle of Kirti Sena – Murdered by Upatissa. Was not allowed to rule for more than 25 days. 

81. UPATISSA II  515-517 AD – Son-in-Law of Kumara Dhatusena (506-515AD) - 

82. SILAKALA  517-530 AD – A prince of Lambakanna stock – prebviously son-in-law of King Dhatusena and brother-in-law of Mogalanna. Later son-in-law of Upatissa. Had three sons. 

83. DATHAPATISSA  530 AD – Second son of Silakala – had his brother Upatissa murdered to become king for 6 months 

84. MOGALLANA II  (Dala Mugalan) 530-550 AD – Eldest brother of Dathapatissa – killed his brother 

85. KIRTI SIRIMEGHA  (Kuda Kitsirimevan) 550 AD – Son of Mogallana II - 

86. MAHANAGA  550-553 AD – A prince from pure Moriya stock who occupied the position of Minister of War under King Dathapatissa (539AD) - 

87. AGGABODHI I  (Akbo) 553-587 AD – brother of Mahanaga, Nephew and Sub-King of Mahanaga - 

88. AGGABODHI II  (Kuda Akbo) 587-597 AD – Nephew and son-in-law of Aggabodhi I - 

89. SANGHA TISSA II  597 AD – Brother and Sword-bearer of Aggabodhi II - 

90. DALLA MOGALLANA  597-603 AD – Commander-in-Chief during the reign of Kuda Akbo (587-597AD) - 

91. SILAMAGHAVANNA  603-612 AD – King Mogallana’s Sword-bearer, a prince of the Lambakanna stock - 

92. AGGABODHI III  612-628 AD – Son of Silimeghavanna - 

93. JETTHA TISSA  III 613 AD – Son of King Sangha Tissa - 

94. AGGABODHI III  613-623-640 AD – Son of Silimeghavanna (603-612AD) – restored to power 

95. DATHOPA TISSA  624-636 AD – General of Jettha Tissa (Dathasiva) – Despoiled all the wealth of the Temples and religious places insteasd of paying homage and respect to them. Aggabodhi III returned with an army from India and deposed him and ascended the throne for the third time. Aggabodhi was again defeated by Dathopa Tissa and fled to the Ruhuna District where he died of a malady that afflicted him in 628 AD. Thereupon the sub-king Kassapa defeated Dathopa Tissa and drove him to India and ruled himself. Dathopa Tissa returned with a large army from India but was defeated and killed in 636 AD. 

96. KASSAPA II  636-645 AD – Brother of Agbo II, Sub-King of Dathopa Tissa - 

97. DAPPULA I  645 – Son in law of Silimeghavanna - 

98. DATHOPA TISSA II  645-654 AD – Nephew of Dathopa Tissa I (Hattha Datha) – died in 673 

99. AGGABODHI IV  (Siri Sangha Bodhi III) 654-670 AD – Younger brother of Dathopa Tissa - 

100. DATTA  670-672 AD – A chief of Royal blood who was placed on the throne by a wealthy Tamil Officer, Pottha-Kuttha 

101. HALHA-DATHA I  672 AD – A youth also placed on the throne by the Tamil Officer, Pottha-Kuttha after the death of Datta - 

102. MANAVAMMA  672-707 AD – Son of Kassapa I, descendant of Silamegahavanna - In the seventh century A.D., Tamil influence became firmly embedded in the island's culture when Sinhalese Prince Manavamma seized the throne with Pallava assistance. The dynasty that Manavamma established was heavily indebted to Pallava patronage and continued for almost three centuries. During this time, Pallava influence extended to architecture and sculpture, both of which bear noticeable Hindu motifs. By the middle of the ninth century, the Pandyans had risen to a position of ascendancy in southern India, invaded northern Sri Lanka, and sacked Anuradhapura. The Pandyans demanded an indemnity as a price for their withdrawal. Shortly after the Pandyan departure, however, the Sinhalese invaded Pandya in support of a rival prince, and the Indian city of Madurai was sacked in the process. 

103. AGGABODHI V  707-713 AD – Son of Manavamma - 

104. KASSAPA  III  713-720 AD – Brother of Aggabodhi V - 

105. MAHINDA I  720-723 AD – Younger brother of Kassapa III - 

106. SILAMEGHA  (Aggabodhi VI) 723-763 AD – Son of Kassapa III -  

107. AGGABODHI VII  763-769 AD – Son of Mahinda - 

108. MAHINDA II  769-789 AD – Son of Aggabodhi VI (Silamegha) - 

109. DAPPULA II  (Udaya I) 789-794 AD – The sub-king of Mahinda II (son of Mahinda II) - 

110. MAHINDA III  794-798 AD – Son of Dappula II (Udaya I) - 

111. AGGABODHI VIII  798-809 – Brother of Mahinda III - 

112. DAPPULA III  809-825 AD – Younger brother of Aggabodhi VIII - 

113. AGGABODHI IX  825-827 AD – Son of Dappula III -  

Pandyans invaded and plundered Anuradhapura 846-866 

114. SENA I  (Silamegha II) 827-847 AD – Younger brother of Aggabodhi IX - 

115. SENA II  847-882 AD – Nephew of Sena I, son of Kassapa - 

116. UDAYA I*  882-893 AD – Brother of sub-king of Sena II - 

118. KASSAPA IV*  893-910 AD – Son of Sena II (sub-king of Udaya I) - 

119. KASSAPA V*  913-920 AD – Son of Kassapa IV - 

120. DAPPULA IV*  920 AD – Son of Kassapa V – ruled for 9 months 

121. DAPPULA V  (Kuda Dappula)* 920-922 AD – Brother of Dappula IV - 

122. UDAYA II*  922-925 AD – Nephew of Sena II, sub-king of Dappula V - 

123. SENA III*  925-934 AD – Brother of Udaya II - 

124. UDAYA III*  934-942 AD – Sub-king of Sena III (a great friend of the king) - 

125. SENA IV*  942-945 AD – Son of Kassapa V, sub-king of Udaya III - 

126. MAHINDA IV  945-961 AD – Brother of Sena IV, nephew of Udaya III, sub-king of Sena - 

127. SENA V  961-971 AD – Son of Mahinda IV - 

128. MAHINDA V  971-1007 AD – younger brother of Sena V, the last of the Sinhalese monarchs to rule from Anuradhapura, fled to Ruhuna, where he reigned until 1007, when the Chola took him prisoner. He subsequently died in India in 1037 - 

129. RAJADIRAJA THE GREAT  1007-1019 AD – Chola (Tamil) Administration - 

130. KASSAPA VI  (Vikrama Bahu) 1019-1031 AD – Son of Mahinda - 

131. KIRTI  1031 AD – A nobleman of Ruhuna - 

132. MAHALANA KIRTI  1031-1034 AD – A Chief - 

133. VIKRAMA PANDU  1034-1035 AD – A Sinhala Prince - 

134. JAGATIPALA  1035-1039 AD – A native of Ayodhya, slain in battle by the Cholians (Tamils) - 

135. LOKESVARA  (Loka) 1039-1045 AD – An inhabitant of Ruhuna - 

136. KASSAPA VII  1045 AD – A Chief - 

Polonnaruwa Period 

137. VIJAYABAHU I  1045-1095 AD – Grandson of Vikrama Bahu a member of the Sinhala Royal Family – The valiant prince Kirti, who had started his military career at the age of thirteen and was now seventeen years of age, who spent his early days in the jungles of Ruhuna, was proclaimed king under the name of Vijaya Bahu I. He then made every preparation for ridding the country of Chola (Tamil) domination. After nineteen years of ceaseless campaigning he succeeded in expelling the Tamils from Polonnaruwa and Anuradhapura. Later, he sent strong forces into Pihiti Rata (Jaffna) and after bitter battles, succeeded in capturing and fortifying the Cholans (Tamils). 

Thereafter, Vijaya Bahu, who until then was crowned only as King of Ruhuna, had himself crowned as King of Lanka at Anuradhapura but chose Polonnaruwa as his capital of administration. 

Having rid the country of Chola (Tamil) domination he produced order, peace and prosperity out of the chaos and misery that had prevailed when he ascended the throne. The king brought Bhikku’s from Burma and thus gave an impetus to the great revival of Buddhism. It is also significant that Hindu Devale’s were respected and Tamil soldiers were maintained in the service of the king. In order to worship the footprint of the Buddha he provided resting places along the route to the mountain, Adam’s Peak (Sri Pada).  

King Vijaya Bahu married Princess Lilavati, the daughter of Prince Jayatipala, as his chief queen. Later, the king married a princess from Kalinga Royal Family as his second Mahesi, and from her he had a son named Vikrama Bahu and a daughter named Ratnavali. His sister, Mitta, was given in marriage to a Pandya Prince who had three sons, the eldest of whom named Manabharana, became the husband of Ratnavali. Their son was Parakrama Bahu I. 

King Vijaya Bahu, one of the greatest of Lanka’s Kings, died peacefully in the fifty fifth year of his reign at Polonnaruwa. 

138. JAYA BAHU I  1095 AD – Brother of Vijaya Bahu I, Prime Minister of Vijaya Bahu – On the death of King Vijaya Bahu, at his capital Polonnaruwa, his sister Mitta, conspiring with her three sons, the chief officers of the state and the monks of the chief Vihara’s, had Jaya Bahu appointed king over Lanka, and in violation of ancient custom, had her eldest son Manabharana appointed sub-king. 

When Vikrama Bahu, the son of Vijaya Bahu who was residing in the Ruhuna, received the news of his father’s death and of the subsequent developments in particular, that the conspirators (his cousins) were advancing towards his district, he made every preparation for war. Having defeated them in sux successive battles, he reached his father’s capital and took up residence there. He expelled Jaya Bahu from the throne and became king of Raja Rata. 

Meanwhile, Manabharana, took the administration of Maya Rata. Kirti Siri Megha took Giruwapattu and Siri Vallabha took Atha Sahassa. 

King Jaya Bahu and his sister Metta resided with Mitta’s second son Kirti Siri Megha, where they died after a few years. 

139. VIKRAMA BAHU I  1096-1117 AD – Son of Vijaya Bahu from a princess of Kalinga – Became king after expelling Jaya Bahu, brother and Prime Minister of Vijaya Bahu I.  

An Indian invasion led by an experienced chieftan, Viradeva of Palandipa, arrived and received a crushing defeat at Polonnaruwa. In the meantime Vikrama Bahu’s three cousins, Manabharana, Kirti Sri Megha and Siri Vallabha, were making preparations to wrest the administration of Pihiti Rata from him. He advanced with his army into Maya Rata and routed their conjoint armies. 

Manabharana died a few years after the birth of his son, Prince Parakrama Bahu, whereupon his brother, Kirti Siri Megha took upon himself the administration of Maya Rata, letting his brother Siri Vallabha administer the whole of Ruhuna District. Manabharana’s wife, Ratnavali, her two daughters and son Parakrama Bahu, resided with Siri Vallabha. Vikrama Bahu died in the twentieth year of his administration. 

140. GAJA BAHU II  1117-1138 AD – Son of Vikrama Bahu I – The king’s uncle, Kirti Sirimegha, and Siri Vallabha made a second attempt to gain Pihiti Rata but failed. By this time, Prince Parakrama Bahu joined his uncle Kirti Sirimegha at the place of his birth. Kirti Sirimegha closely associated his nephew with himself in the course of administering the country. Later, Parakrama Bahu’s restless and ambitious spirit began to assert itself. He left to Pihiti Rata with a handful of the army youth, with the intention of acquainting himself of the exact conditions prevailing there, without the consent of his uncle Kirti Sirimegha. 

King Gaja Bahu received the news of young Parkrama Bahu’s presence within his dominion and invited him to be a guest in his Palace. In order to allay all suspicions in King Gaja bahu’s mind, Parakrama Bahu sent for his sister, Bhaddavi, and gave her in marriage to King Gaja Bahu. Latr on Parakrama bahu sent troops against his uncle Gaja bahu. In the meantime Manabharana established himself at Polonnaruwa, determined at putting end to the rule of Gaja Bahu. King Gaja Bahu sent a pitiful appeal to Parakrama Bahu begging him to deliver him from his affliction. Thereupon, Parakrama Bahu recaptured Polonnaruwa setting Gaja Bahu at liberty and compelling Manabharana to seek safety in Ruhuna. Gaja Bahu fought Parakrama Bahu oncemore. After a long and fierce struggle Parakrama Bahu took Gaja bahu prisoner. On the exhortation of the Sangha the king was allowed to reign until his death. King Gaja Bahu died a few years after he had resumed the administration of his province. 

141. PARAKRAMA BAHU I  1140-1173 AD – Grandson of Vijaya Bahu I, Prince of Royal Blood, Pandyan descent, son of Manabharana and Vijaya Bahu’s sister, Mitta – Parakrama Bahu I could not become king of Raja Rata at once because Manabharana too wanted to succeed Gaja Bahu. A war followed and Manabharana was defeated. Parakrama Bahu I became King of Lanka and the people filled the air with shouts of joy and victory. One of his first acts, after he ascended the throne, was to ensure that the city was self-sufficient in food. He did this by utilizing the vast resources that nature had so lavishly blessed the land with.  

Viharas such as Jetavana and a temple for the Tooth Relic were built. He also built more than a thousand tanks, one of which was called “The sea of Parakrama” (Parakrama Samudra). A seven storeyed palace of great splendor, named Vijayanta (Palace of the Gods) and a Council Chamber arose in the city. During his reign of thirty three years Polonnaruwa rose to the zenith of its greatness and Anuradhapura’s former prosperity was restored. Buddhism, shattered by heresies, was purified and a friendlier spirit established among the Sangha. At the same time Barhminism was also tolerated. Arts, laws, and literature flourished. He also built an university called “Vijamandapa” to promote scienc and research into herbal remedies and hospitals for the sick. The country was united and its government reorganized. He made Lanka the granary of the East and caused wealth and plenty to prevail and flow all around, inspired poets to song, and brought in the Sinhala Golden Age. The kings fame spread throughout the world. Parakrama Bahu I married Princess Lilavati, a learned woman, daughter of his uncle, Sri Vallabha, as his second queen. 

Parakrama Bahu I died after a reign of thirty three years leaving behind no heir to the throne. 

142. VIJAYA BAHU II  1173-1174 AD – Parakrama Bahu’s nephew (sisters son) – Was nominated king as King Parakrama bahu had no heir to inherit the throne. He was a devout Buddhist endowed with great tenderness of heart and purity. He was also aman of considerable literary achievements and a poet of great renown. He pardoned numerous political prisoners that filled the jails in the country. 

King Vijaya Bahu II was not destined to occupy the throne for longer than a year, having been foully murdered at the instance of a treacherous friend of his 0 a native of Kalinga named Mahinda. 

143. MAHINDA VI  1174 AD – A Kalinga – Was put to death, by Kirti Nissanka, within five days of occupying the throne. Nissanka had occupied the office of sub-king during the reign of King Vijaya Bahu II. 

144. NISSANKA MALLA  (Kirti Sri Nissanka) 1174-1183 AD – A Kalinga Prince, sub-king of Vijaya Bahu II - (the Brahmanic legal system came to regulate the Sinhalese caste system in this period). Ascended the throne with the unanimous approval of the chiefs of Lanka. He was quiet and patriotic. A king of great energy and achievement who devoted much during his short reign of nine years to achieve internal reforms. He reduced taxation and eradicated robbery based on the concept that they who steal do so because of need and provided the people with every necessity. He also built beautiful mansions and temples. Improvements were made to to the Rankot Vihara by buulding a number of profusely ornamental chaples around it. He had two queens. One a Kalinga Princess named Subadhra and the other was Queen Kalyanavati. 

His reign was followed by one of treachery, intrigue, dishonor and murder. Thus the Sinhalese Kingdom of Polonnaruwa moved rapidly to its collapse and annihilation. 

145. VIRA BAHU I  1183 AD – Son of Nissanka Malla – ruled for one day – Was killed on the very day that he was installed as king by the commander-in-chief of the army, tavuru Senevirat on the grounds that he was a son not equal to his father. 

146. VIKRAMA BAHU II  1183 AD – Younger brother of Nissanka Malla – Ruled the country for three months after which time he was murdered by a prince named Codanaga, a son of King Nissanka Malla’s sister. 

147. CODANAGA  1183-1184 AD – Nephew of Nissanka Malla – Ruled for nine months and was deposed and deprived of his eyes by the General Senevirat who placed Lilavati, one of the queens of King parakrama Bahu I, on the throne. 

148. QUEEN LILAVATI  1184-1187 AD – Widow of King Parakrama Bahu I –The country was peaceful and prosperous and the Queen was able to devote her time to the development of literature, music, drama and art. She ruled for three years wisely and well. She was removed from the throne by her co-Ministers. 

149. SAHASSA MALLA  1187-1189 AD – King Nissanka Malla’s younger brother – Ruled for two years. Was also known as “The lion hearted king”. He was deposed by Ayasmantha, the chief of the army, who placed Kalyanavati, the queen of the late King Nissanka Malla, on the throne. 

150. QUEEN KALYANAWATI  1189--1195 AD – Queen of late King Nissanka Malla – She was installed Queen by General Ayasmantha and the general ruled the country through her for six years. His reign came to an end after she was deposed. 

151. DHAMMASOKA  1195-1196 AD – Infant King 3 months old was put to death by Anikanga – General Ayasmantha installed an infant, three months old, on to the throne and acted as Regent and ruled the country for another year. The infant Dhammasoka and Regent Ayasmantha were put to death by Anikanga, the governor of Maya Rata. 

152. ANIKANGA  1196 AD – Governor of Maya Rata – Occupied the throne for seventeen days. Was assassinated by his own valiant, but treacherous, General Camunakka, who placed the deposed Queen Lilavati back on the throne. 

153. QUEEN LILAVATI  1196-1197 AD - Widow of King Parakrama Bahu – She was placed on the throne for the second time by General Camunakka and he ruled the country through her for one year. She was deposed by Lokissara, who arrived in Lanka with an army enlisted abroad, and defeated the royal forces at the capital of Polonnaruwa. 

154. LOKISSARA  1197 AD – Arrived with an army enlisted abroad and defeated the Royal forces at Polonnaruwa – Ruled for nine months and was deposed when the commander-in-chief of the Suinhala army installed Queen Lilavati back to the throne for the third time. 

155. QUEEN LILAVATI  1197-1198 AD - Widow of King Parakrama Bahu – Ascended the throne for the third time. She was of undiluted Royal blood and a woman of dignity who commanded the respect and admiration of those with whom she came in contact. In the seventh month of her reign King Parakrama of Pandu invaded Lanka and deposed her. 

156. PARAKRAMA PANDU  (Parakum Pandi) 1198-1201 – South Indian Invader (Pandyan) – He ascended the throne deposing Queen Lilavati. He produced himself to be wise and capable monarch who administered justice strictly in accordance with the law of the land. 

Lanka was invaded by Magha, a prince of Kalinga, in the third year of King Pandu’s reign. The king was taken captive, his eyes were plucked out and he was robbed of all his riches. 

157. MAGHA  (Kalinga) 1201-1222 AD – A prince of Kalinga – Magha had himself crowned king. The Tamils under Magha were merciless than any previous invaders. The ferocity, cruelty and barbarism of these invaders were such as Lanka had never known before even in spite of the many wars waged on her soil. They ransacked the kingdom, killed man and beast, broke images, destroyed temples, viharas, tortured the rich of their wealth and gave land to Cholas. The Tooth and Bowl relics were hidden. He tyrannized over the inhabitants of Pihiti Rata for twenty one years. As for the Maya district the invaders were complelled to retire into Pihiti Rata by the forces of Vijaya Bahu, a prince of Sinhala Royal blood. 

158. VIJAYA BAHU III  1222-1226 AD – A patriotic Prince of Sinhala Royal blood – After the expulsion of the invaders from Maya Rata, Vijaya Bahu III reigned as king of that district for four years. He built many Vihara’s and repaired all the temples in his district that had been damaged by the invaders. 

Vijaya Bahu was a sedulous patron of learning and established a free school in every village of his kingdom. He had two sons named Parakrama bahu and Bhuvaneka Bahu respectively. He moved his seat of governance to Dambadeniya. He died in the fourth year of his reign. 

159. PANDITHA PARAKRAMA BAHU II  1222-1257 AD – Eldest son of Vijaya Bahu III – On the death of Vijaya Bahu III, his son, Parakrama Bahu II, known as Panditha Parakrama on account of his great learning, succeeded the throne. King Magha, the soverign of Pihita Rata was defeated by the Sinhala army of King panditah Parakrama bahu. King Magha then decided to evacuate the country rather than allow himself to be taken captive. On their way they were mercilessly slaughtered by a Sinhala army. His reign is famous, not only for the labors of the king in the cause of religion, education and literature, but also for those of other eminent men in the field of literature. 

The Tamils, led by a Prince named Chandra Bhanu, son of the first ruler of Jaffna, invaded the country in the eleventh year of Panditha Parakrama Bahu’s reign. The king sent his valiant nephew, Vira Bahu, at the head of a strong force to give them battle. The invaders were defeated. 

Although he was crowned at Polonnaruwa he ruled at dambadeniya. Panditha Parakrama Bahu reigned as king over the whole of Lanka for thirty five years. He died and was succeeded by his illustrious son, Vijaya Bahu. The king had five sons. 

160. VIJAYA BAHU IV  1257-1259 AD – Eldest son of Panditha Parakrama Bahu II –. Vijaya Bahu appointed his cousin, Vira Bahu as Chief Minister, his brother Tilokamala as the Commander of the Sinhala army, which protected the Southern portion of the country from foreign invasion, his brother Bhuvaneka Bahu I as the Commander of the army which guarded the Northern portion of the country, and his brothers Parakrama Bahu and Jaya Bahu to attend the work in his capital. He himself journeyed throughout the country with Vira Bahu. He reigned for two years and was treacherously murdered by a servant, who had been bribed for the purpose by one of his Generals named Mitta who was desirous of ascending the throne. He was assassinated in 1270 

161. MITTA  1259 AD – A General of the Army – Mitta ascended the throne. The sub-king Bhuvaneka Bahu fled to Yapahuva and took refuge until Mitta was killed. Not many days was Mitta spared to occupy the throne of Lanka. He was slain in the Royal Palace at Dambadeniya by the loyal Aryan officer Thakuraka. Bhuvaneka Bahu I now ascended the throne. 

162. BHUVANEKA BAHU I  1259-1270 – Brother of Vijaya Bahu IV (1257-1259AD) – He was a beneficent monarch. During the early part of his reign Lanka was repeatedly but unsuccessfully invaded by Indian forces. He ruled at Dambadeniya and later shifted his capital to Yapahuva. He died at Yapahuva in the eleventh year of his reign. He spread knowledge of the Pali scriptures throughout the land. Bhuvaneka Bahu I greatly extended and adorned Yapahuva so that it shone with exceeding beauty. He was responsible for the erection of the Temple of the Tooth and the Royal Palace. The life of Yapahuva as the capital of Lanka lasted only till the death of King Bhuvaneka Bahu I, when it was subjugated and despoiled by another Tamil invasion. 

163. CHANDRA BHANU  1270 AD – Son of the first ruler of Yapa Patuna (Jaffnapatnam) – He captured the Fort of Yapahuva but was deprived of his victory by the Pandya Emperor Kulasekera. 

164. PARAKRAMA BAHU III  1270-1275 – Nephew of Buvaneka Bahu I, son of Vijaya Bahu IV – His mother was a sister of Kulasekera. He was established as King of Polonnaruwa. During his reign the island was invaded by a Pandyan army led by one Chakravarti. The invaders succeeded in capturing the forces of Yapahuva and carrying off the sacred Tooth-Relics. However, King Parakramu bahu III succeeded in bringing it back to Lanka and placed the relics in an ancient temple at the noble city of Polonnaruwa where he reigned. He was regulating the affairs of state strictly in accordance with the laws of the land. He was not allowed to reign for long. 

165. BHUVANEKA BAHU II  1275-1277 – Son of Buvaneka Bahu I, cousin of Parakrama Bahu III – Bhuvaneka Bahu advanced to Polonnaruwa, slew Parakrama in battle and brought the Tooth-Relics to Kurunegala. Kulasekera, the Pandya Emperor, came himself to avenge the death of his nephew Parakrama Bahu III. He forced the Sinhalese King to action against an army outnumbering his. Bhuvaneka bahu died fighting heroically. He had ruled for two years from Kurunegala. A staunch supporter of the Buddhist faith he devoted himself to many works of charity during his reign. 

166. PARAKRAMA BAHU IV  1277-1301 AD – son of Buvanekka Bahu II – Prince Parakrama bahu, son of Bhuvaneka Bahu II, proclaimed himself as soverign against the Pandya emperor Kulasekera, invaded Yapa Patuna Kingdom and captured its capital. He was a very scholarly monarch. Parakrama Bahu, together with his Prime Minister, Weerasinghe Pathiraja, translated the Pansiya Panas Jataka (the 550 birth-stories of Buddha) from Pali to Sinhala. He built many Vihara’s during his reign from Kurunegala. 

167. BHUVANEKA BAHU III  1301-1307 AD – Known as Vanni Buvaneka Bahu – Historians tell us very little about the his reign and relationship to Parakrama Bahu IV. Varying accounts have been given of the ends of Parakrama Bahu IV and Bhuvaneka Bahu III.

Vathimi Raja, son of Bhuvaneka Bahu II by his Muslim wife, Fathima, was killed by Parakramabahu IV by pushing him over a cliff, the location of which is presently venerated by many as Galey Bandara. It is also said that he was the aforementioned Vathimi Raja, son of Bhuvaneka Bahu II by his Muslim wife Fathima. 

168. VIJAYA BAHU V  (Jaya Bahu) 1307 AD – Second son of Chandra Banu of Jaffnapatnam – Vijaya Bahu was reigning in the north of the Malayan Peninsula, retreated to Anuradhapura, where he met Parakrama bahu IV. 

His son, Bodamapananda, came into conflict with Parakrama bahu with the result that Kurunegala was seized by Bodamapananda for his father, and Vijaya Bahu was installed on the throne as Vijaya Bahu V. He abandoned Kurunegala and retreated to Senkadagala (Kandy) after the eleventh year of his reign, as the Arya Chakravarti, the first ruler of Yapa Patuna having captured Anuradhapura had advanced to Yapahuva and taken possession of the fortress, having slain Vijaya Bahu’s son Bodamapananda. The king died and his son Bhuvaneka Bahu IV ascended the throne. 

169. BHUVANEKA BAHU IV  1341-1351 AD – Son of Vijaya Bahu V – capital was shifted to Gampola where he established himself with the support of the General Senalankadhikara, brother-in-law of Bhuvaneka Bahu IV. It is probable that the capital was shifted from Kurunegala to Gampola owing to civil strife among the Sinhala themselves. Bhuvaneka Bahu IV was a man of great wisdom and faith, and a mind of excellent virtues. After his death his brother, Parakrama Bahu V, ascended the throne. 

170. PARAKRAMA BAHU V  1344-1359 AD – Brother of Buvaneka Bahu IV, son of Vijaya Bahu V – assumed power at Dedigama. He was associated with his brother Bhuvaneka Bahu IV as king for a greater part of his reign, with Dedigama as his capital, and later moved to Gampola and received the backing of Senalankadhikara. Vikrama Bahu III, son of Bhuvaneka Bahu IV from a sister of Senalankadhikara, was heir apparent. Parakrama Bahu V lost his throne and fled to Java (Malay Peninsula) 

171. VIKRAMA BAHU III  1357-1374 AD – Son of Buvaneka Bahu IV – The struggle for power between Senalankadhikara and Alagakonnara (Alakesvara) of Rayigama gave the opportunity to Nissanka Alakesvara to establish himself as the de facto ruler of Gampola, reducing Vikrama Bahu III to the position of a mere figurehead and also becoming the joint husband with his brothers of that kings sister. The Tamil Kingdom of Yapa Patuna under King Arya Chakravarti, was growing in power and influence. Nissanka Alakeswara, later, defeated the Yapa Patuna ruler and forced him to swear allegiance to Gampola. He thus became the de facto ruler of a United Lanka.  

172. BHUVANEKA BAHU V  1357-1374 AD – Nissanka Alakeswara’s son by the sister of Vikrama Bahu III – He was proclaimed de jure king, as Bhuvaneka Bahu V. He was a staunch Buddhist and devoted the greater part of his time for the furtherance of religion. 

The Jaffna King, Arya Chakravarti, sent armies by sea and land and the expedition by land seems to have had some success as Bhuvaneka bahu had fled Gampola and retired  at Raigama where he reigned in the shadow of Vira Alakeswara. 

Vira Alakeswara destroyed Arya Chakravarti’s army and marched on in triumph to Kotte. As Bhuvaneka Bahu was unable to return to Gampola the Sinhala Chiefs installed Vira Bahu, an energetic and ambitious prince, as king. 

After the death of Bhuvaneka Bahu, Vira Bahu’s elder brother Vijaya Bahu, who was living at Raigama, was enthroned King of Kotte by Alakeswara and exercised authority over the Kingdom for twelve years. Vira Alakeswara developed and constructed the City of Jayavaddhanakotta

He maltreated foreigners resorting to the Island and he plundered their vessels. A mission from China was insulted and waylaid, and, with difficulty effected an escape from Lanka. N the following year another mission was sent and they inverted the capital, made a prisoner of the king and carried him captive, together with his queen, children, officers of state and attendants. The prisoners were presented at court. The Chinese Ministers pressed for their execution but the emporer set him at liberty, yet, commanded them to select a virtuous man from the same family to occupy the throne. All captives declared in favor of Seay-pa-nea-na (Prince Sepanana or Parakrama Bahu VI) whereupon the sovereignty of the Sinhala Kingdom was given to him. 

173. VIRA BAHU II  1408-1410 AD – Brother in law of King Buvaneka Bahu V – held power at Rayigama. He occupied the throne of Lanka during the period of time that elapsed between the capture of Bhuvaneka Bahu V and the appointment of Parakrama Bahu VI on the throne. 

174. PARAKRAMA BAHU VI  1410-1462 AD – Prince named Sepanana (Jayapala) descended from Parakrama Bahu, the third son of Chandra Banu of Yapa Patuna (Jaffnapatnam), and whose mother, Sunethradevi, was a daughter of the daughter of Parakrama Bahu V of Dedigama –  

Sepanana, who was born and bred in Palembang, made himself accepted as the ruler of the South and the West, by the Sinhalese, with the backing of the prelate of Raigama, Vidagama Maha Thera. He assumed the name Parakrama Bahu VI and made Kotte the capital of his kingdom and proved himself to be an exemplary monarch. The king had two adopted sons, named Sapumal Kumara and Ambulugala Kumara. When these princes had attained their manhood, the king, desirous of bringing the whole of Lanka – the Northern protion of which had fallen into the hands of a South Indian king – under his sway,  entrusted the task of expelling the invader and subjugating the district to his eldest son Sapumal Kumara. He fell upon many villages belonging to Jaffna and brought many prisoners of war to Kotte. The king sent his son out for the second time with another army. On this occasion, after a fierce battle, Sapumal Kumara captured the kingdom and took the King of Jaffna, Arya Chakravarthi, a prisoner, and putting him to death brought his wife and children to Kotte, where he presented them to his father, King Parakrama Bahu. The king, highly pleased with the exploits of his son, handed over the administration of Jaffna to him. The king brought the highland kingdom (Kanda Uda Rata) also under his authority. 

The king was a great patron of literature. Great educational programs were made during his reign. Schools and Pirivena’s flourished. Poets of imperishable renown like Totagamuve Sri Rahula gave learning and culture an impetus such as it had never been before. At the village of Pepiliyana, near Kotte, he built a temple with a school attached and named it Sunetra Devi Pirivena, after his mother so that merit may accrue to her. The Sinhalese, in their new capital, reached their last period of brillianct achievements. He thus became the ruler of a United Lanka. Parakrama Bahu VI died a peaceful death in the fifty second year of his reign. 

175. VIRA PARAKRAMA BAHU VII  1462 AD – Jaya Bahu son of Parakrama Bahu II’s natural daughter, Ulakudaya Devi – Jaya Bahu, on ascension to the throne assumed the name Vira Parakrama Bahu. He was not allowed to occupy the throne for many days. His uncle Sapumal Kumara hastened to Kotte from Jaffna and put him to death. 

176. BHUVANEKA BAHU VI  1462-1469 AD – Sapumal Kumara, son of Parakrama Bahu VI – After putting to death Vira Parakrama Bahu VII, Sapumal Kumara ascended the throne under the title Bhuvaneka Bahu VI. He was a staunch Buddhist and was devoted to furthering the welfare of his people and religion. During his reign a chief of Pasdun Korale named Siriwardena Patty Raja raised a rebellion. This insurrection was speedily quelled by the kings brother Ambulagala Kumara. Bhuvaneka Bahu VI died in the seventh year of his reign. 

177. PANDITA PARAKRAMA BAHU  1469 AD – Adopted son of Buvaneka Bahu VI - The King, on ascending the throne, appointed the rebel Patty Raja as general. The late King Sapumal Kumara’s brother, Amubulagala Kumara, on receiving the news of his brother’s death and of the usurpation of the throne, hurried with his army, where, after a fiercely fought battle, the kings General, Patty Raja was slain. He also cruelly put to death King Pandita Parakrama Bahu and all members of his family. 

178. VIRA PARAKRAMA BAHU VIII  1469-1489 AD – Ambulagala Kumara, son of Parakrama Bahu VI – Ambulagala Kumara crowned himself King assuming the name Vira Parakrama Bahu. He spent large sums of money in the furtherance of Buddhism. He had four princes and princesses and reigned for twenty years. 

179. DHARMA PARAKRAMA BAHU IX  1489-1509 AD – Son of Vira Parakrama Bahu – During his reign there existed several “Kings” (Rajas) ruling various parts of the country. They all paid tribute to the ruler at Kotte and called him the “Emperor” (Maha Rajah). The Indian Moors effected a landing in Chilaw during this period. The Raja’s of Udugampola and Madampe inflicted a crushing defeat on them in which there leader Kadiraya was slain. About this time, the Portuguese had started competing with the Moors for trade in the East Indies. On receiving news that the Portuguese had arrived off Galle on Nov 15 1505, the Emperor sent Chakrayudha Rajah in person to deal with them as he thought best in the interest of the Island

The Portuguese formed an alliance with the king and established a factory or trading station in Colombo. They put to sea a stone cross at Colombo to record the event of their arrival. 

King Dharma Parakrama Bahu died in the twentieth year of his reign. 

Beginning of Portuguese Colonial rule in Ceylon. At this time, there were three kingdoms. Foremost was the kingdom of Kotte. A separate dynasty was ruling in Kandy, having broken away from Kotte and the kingdom of Jaffna in the North. 

180. VIJAYA BAHU VI OF KOTTE  1509-1524 AD – Brother of Dharma Parakrama Bahu IX, Rajah of Menik KadavaraThe king was informed that the proposed factory or trading station, requested by the Portuguese, was to be mounted with canon. After many pleadings by the Portuguese the king gave a reluctant assent and the first European stronghold in Ceylon began to rise out on the rocky beach at Colombo. Thus came into being the Fort of Colombo.  

King Vijaya Bahu had three sons, Bhuvaneka Bahu, Maha Raigam Bandara and Mayadunne by his first wife. On her death he married an Indian Princess by whom he had a son named Deva Raja Kumara. The sons of the kings first wife, having learnt that the king, in consultation with his Ministers, had decided upon appointing their step brother as his successor to the throne, fled from Kotte and having secured the assistance of Jayavira – the Raja of Kandy, marched on to the capital (Kotte) and had their father murdered in his palace. 

Bhuvaneka Bahu, the eldest brother ascended the throne. Thereafter Raigam Bandara took up his abode at Raigama as Raja of that district, and Mayadunne built himself a city at Sitavaka and established himself as Raja of that district. Civil strife and internal dissensions gave the Portuguese the opportunity of obtaining a permanent foothold in the Island. 

181. BHUVANEKA BAHU VII  1524-1551 AD – Eldest son of Vijaya Bahu - Shortly before his death in 1551, the king successfully obtained Portuguese recognition of his grandson, Dharmapala, as his successor. Portugal pledged to protect Dharmapala from attack in return for privileges, including a continuous payment in cinnamon and permission to rebuild the fort at Colombo on a grander scale. When Bhuvanekabahu died, Dharmapala, still a child, was entrusted to the Franciscans for his education, and, in 1557, he converted to Roman Catholicism. His conversion broke the centuries-old connection between Buddhism and the state, and a great majority of Sinhalese immediately disqualified the young monarch from any claim to the throne. The rival king at Sitawake exploited the issue of the prince's conversion and accused Dharmapala of being a puppet of a foreign power.

Before long, rival King Mayadunne had annexed much of the Kotte kingdom and was threatening the security of the capital city itself. The Portuguese were obliged to defend Dharmapala (and their own credibility) because the ruler lacked a popular following. They were subsequently forced to abandon Kotte and retreat to Colombo, taking the despised puppet king with them. Mayadunne and, later, his son, Rajasinha, besieged Colombo many times. The latter was so successful that the Portuguese were once even forced to eat the flesh of their dead to avoid starvation. The Portuguese would probably have lost their holdings in Sri Lanka had they not had maritime superiority and been able to send reinforcements by sea from their base at Goa on the western coast of India

182. DHARMAPALA  1551-1597 AD Grandson of King Bhuvaneka Bahu VII, son of Vidiya Bandara – On the death of Bhuvaneka Bahu, his grandson Dharmapala, Vidiya Bandara’s son, was officially proclaimed king. 

Kotte became a Portuguese protectorate as the king of Portugal had undertaken at Bhuvaneka Bahu’s request to protect and uphold Dharmapala against Mayadunne. Vidiya Bandara was the first to swear the oath of allegiance to his son. Since he was yet too young to rule the Ministers unanimously elected Vidiya Bandara to function as Regent. Mayadunne, hearing of his brothers death rose again in rebellion. Before Vidiya could crush this rebellion the Portuguese Viceroy Noronha arrived in Colombo with a large army in search of the late king’s treasures. They went on the rampage causing more bloodshed than ever before. The viceroy requested the king to convert to Christianity but he politely excused himself on the ground that it would furnish Mayadunne with a weapon to be used against him on the grounds that he had deserted his national faith. The viceroy set sail for Goa, having instructed the Governor of Colombo to arrest the king’s father Vidiya Bandara. Hardly had he left the shores, Vidiya Bandara descended on Kotte like a thunderbolt, made no secret of his hostility to the Portuguese and their religion. He massacred them as much as he hated them and thus began his anti-Catholic campaign. He destroyed every catholic Church and re-established Buddhist Vihare’s there and put to death some who had embraced the Catholic faith. Vidiya Bandara was imprisoned in a dungeon. He escaped and entered into an agreement with the king of Jaffna to join together to drive away the perverter of their religion and laws. Whilst this agreement was being solemnized in the famous temple of Nallur an accidental explosion of some gunpowder took place which made Vidiya think that he was to be the victim of an act of treachery on the part of the Tamil King. He hastily drew his sword against the king and after a desperate struggle between the Sinhalese and Tamils within the sacred Temple, Vidiya Bandara was cut down whilst his treasures, wife, and other possessions fell into the hands of the Jaffna king. 

Vidiya Bandara died as he had lived, sword in hand. A worthy end to the life of undoubtedly the greatest General this country has ever produced. The king of Jaffna greatly deplored this sad tragedy, especially as it had occurred in his presence and had been unable to prevent it. He built a Temple in honor of Vidiya Bandara in Jaffna, deifying him. Now Dharmapala found himself free to act on his own. He became a Christian taking the name of the reigning King of Portugal, John III. Thus a Christian sat on the Sinhala throne. The first and only catholic King of this island. He was a puppet king in the hands of the Portuguese. He donated his kingdom to the Portuguese and at his death lost it altogether for Sinhala royalty and the people, for not having issue to succeed him. 

Philip I of Portugal became suzerain of the Kingdom of Kotte on the death of Dharmapala in 1597. With the Kingdom of Kotte now directly under Portuguese rule, the missionaries became very active throughout the Kingdom. 

183. MAYADUNNE OF SITAVAKA  1551-1581 AD – Brother of Bhuvaneka Bahu VII, son of Vijaya Bahu VII – He ruled at Sitavaka – a fierce opponent of the Portuguese. He devoted the whole of his life to an attempt to oust his brother King Bhuvaneka Bahu and thereby preserve the independence of Lanka, which was being undermined by the Portuguese intrigue. He made constant invasions on the territory of Bhuvaneka Bahu of Kotte. 

Together with his war-like son Tikiri Bandara (Rajasinghe I), he fought many battles with the Portuguese. The greatest battle for national freedom was fought in 1559 on the left bank of the Kelani river (Mulleriyawa). It was one of the bloodiest and most decisive battles in Sinhala history. “blood flows like water” says the old chronicle. The Sinhalese, led by Mayadunne’s son Raja Singha, the Lion Hearted, fought on undismayed and with never-flapping courage. The father and son continued their onslaught on the Portuguese. Mayadunne and his son, whose exceptional military prowess has been recognized and accepted by the Portuguese themselves, launched massive attacks on Kotte, laid siege to it several times, and, almost succeeded in taking it. Finally, the city being badly battered and the Portuguese, unable to withstand the attacks, moved to Colombo in 1565. Mayadunne became master of the greater part of the kingdom of Kotte. He died in 1581 at the ripe age of eighty years. 


184. VIKRAMA BAHU  1469-1511 AD – Senasammata – He ruled in Kandy, having broken away from Kotte in 1474. The founder of a new dynasty in Kandy called “The Kandyan Dynasty”. This opened a new chapter in the country’s history. The Sinhalese in the highlands, “Kanda Uda-Rata”, asserted their sovereignty as a distinct political entity and all true Sinhalese allied to its banner like children of one mother. 

During this period, there were two other Kingdoms in Lanka, the Kingdom of the South West Wet Zone and the Kingdom of Jaffna in the North 

185. VIJAYAVIRA BANDARA  1511-1552 AD Cousin of Mayadunne – The kingdom of Kandy remained in spite of repeated attempts by the Portuguese to subdue it. Their efforst to convert the ruler, Jayaweera Bandara, to Christianity ended in failure. 

186. KARALLIYADDE BANDARA  1552-1582 AD – Grandson of Senasammata Vikrama Bahu – Was placed on the Kandyan throne by the Portuguese. 

187. RAJASINGHA I  1581-1593 AD – Son of Mayadunne – King Mayadunne’s son, Tikiri Banda, ascended the throne of Sri Lanka as Rajasinghe I after the death of his father. He fought battles, persecuted Buddhist monks and put to death any suspected of being critical of him. 

Sitavaka gained in prestige and its king became the rallying point of the Sinhalese. In the course of a very few years he made himself master of the interior. He captured and annexed Kandy to Sitavaka. 

He drove Karaliyadde Bandara, the King of Kandy, a puppet ruler placed on the throne of Kandy by the Portuguese by allying himself with them and giving his sister as queen to Dharmapala of Kotte, into exile. Karaliyadde Bandara, with his queen, their three children and his nephew, fled for safety to the Portuguese. Not satisfied with having driven him away he had perversely set fire to the magnificent Senkadagala Palace. Rajasinghe then placed Vijayasundara Bandara (a Kandyan aristocrat) on the throne in 1587 and later cruelly put him to death, as he was getting popular and powerful. Vijayasundara Bandara’s son, Konappu Bandara, after his fathers assassination, sought refuge with the Portuguese. 

Konappu Bandara, who was now a political refugee, was converted to Christianity and was known as Don Juan to the Portuguese. He was sent by them to raise a rebellion against Raja Singha, which he accomplished successfully. 

During this period, the King of Jaffna, PUVIRAJA PANDARAM PARARAJASEGARAM was overthrown and ETHIRIMANA SINGHAM PARARAJASEGARAM sat on the throne – a protectorate of Portugal 

188. VIMALA DHARMA SURIYA I  1592-1604 AD – (Konappu Bandara) son of Vijayasundara Bandara – King Karaliyadde died of smallpox and his Queen and sons leaving to the care of the Portuguese, an infant daughter Kusuma Devi, and nineteen year old nephew Yamasinghe Bandara, son of his sister, Tikiri Kumari. 

After the Portuguese gained Kandy from Raja Singha of Sitavaka, under the leadership of Konappu Bandara, they placed Yamasinghe Bandara, nephew of King Karalaiyadde Bandara, on the throne.. Yamasinghe Bandara suddenly died and his twelve year old son, named Don Joao, was acclaimed king. Konappu Bandara who was Yamasinghe Bandara’s commander-in-chief turned against the Portuguese, attacked and proclaimed himself King of Kandy as Vimala Dharma Suriya I. Young Don Joao escaped to the Portuguese and later became a priest. In 1594, the Portuguese once again sent a large army, led by an experienced officer named Pedro Lopez, to invade Kandy and place Princess Kusuma Devi (baptized as Dona Catherina), daughter of the late King Karaliyadde Bandara, on the throne. She was the rightful heir to the throne. 

Vimala Dharma Suriya, having annihilated the Portuguese force, took alive Dona Catherina and married her on the battle-field in the presence of his whole army assembled there and established a legal claim to the throne. The Portuguese resorted to violent methods of retaliation and a war of extermination, unsurpassed in atrocity and bloodshed, ensued. The war lasted for a long time and the Portuguese were defeated. Kandy, therefore, began to play a new role in the history of Lanka as Vimala Dharma Suriya was now the sole surviving Sinhala Kings. Kandy preserved its independence. 

Although his reign was a continuous struggle with the Portuguese, he did all in his power to promote the cause of learning the Buddhist religion, which had received a staggering blow at the hands of his predecessor, King Raja Singha I. 

He was a complete statesman. 

The Dutch arrived in Ceylon during his reign, on May 28 1602. The king died, in 1604, after a reign of twelve years, leaving behind a son and two daughters, who were all of tender years. 

A contest for the throne, between the prince of Uva and Senarat, cousin of Vimala Dharma Suriya, became imminent. At this juncture, Queen Mother Dona Catherina, declared herself regent for her young son Prince Mahastenne, and thus prevented a civil war. Later, Dona Catherina bestowed upon Senarat, who had but recently relinquished the priestly robes, her heart and hand and with them the sovereignty of Ceylon. 

189. SENARAT  1604-1635 AD – Cousin of Vimala Dharma Suriya I – Prince Senarat, young and popular among the people, now married to late King Vimala Dharma Suriya’s widowed Queen, Dona Catherina, was named King Senarat the first of Kandy. Prince mahastenne, son of Dona Catherina by Vimala Dharma Suriya, died in 1612. The following year Dona Catherina died of grief. She was only 35 years of age. 

King Senarat then took her elder daughter, Suriya Devi, by Vimala Dharma Suriya, as his wife. She too died in 1617. He then married the second daughter of Dona Catherina and Vimala Dharma Suriya, Sama Devi. 

These marriages show that Senarat, son of a village headman from matale, realized the weakness of his claim to the throne and tried to establish his relationship with the old dynasty of Kandy through Dona Catherina (Kusuma Devi), daughter of Karaliyadde. 

In 1628, Constantine de Sao, commander-in-chief of the Portuguese force, with a large force, boldly pushed his way to Kandy, burning and destroying everything which came within the reach of his army along the way. A great battle was fought. Prince Raja Singha, son of King Senarat, though but seventeen years of age, was in the midst of the fray directing and controlling the forces. The Portuguese army was completely defeated. 

After a reign of twenty eight years, he died in his old age in 1632, leaving behind three sons to administer the Empire. To the eldest of them, Komara Singha Hastanne, he entrusted the administration of Uva; to the second, Vijaya Pala, he entrusted the principality of Matale, and to his youngest son, Raja Singha (Mahastenne), the kingship of Kandy. 

190. RAJA SINGHA II  1635-1687 AD – Son of Dona Catherina and Senarat - (beginning of the period of Dutch occupation of Ceylon). Youngest son of King Senarat he assumed the title of Emperor and proceeded to administer the whole of his father’s dominions as Emperor Raja Singha II, the last great Sinhala Monarch. He continued the national struggle against the Portuguese and was the hero of Gannoruva, the last great battle of the Singhalese. 

A large army commanded by Don Diego de Mello, a Portuguese General, penetrated into Kandy once again, set fire to the city, plundered it and slaughtered cows in the temples and retired to Gannoruwa. 

The king, determined to punish Don Diego, surrounded them with his forces, put them all to death by the sword, and subsequently cut off their heads and piled them up in pyramidal form as a warning to all aggressors, and history asserts that only thirty eight Europeans escaped to tell the tale. 

King Raja Singha, perceiving the difficulty that he would have to expel the Portuguese from Lanka, had sent an emissary to a Dutch settlement in India requesting assistance for the purpose of driving them from the Island. Eventually a treaty of alliance was entered into between the Dutch and the Sinhala monarch. 

Ever since the arrival of the Dutch in Lanka, in 1638, the king had treated them as no other than merceranies engaged for the particular purpose of expelling the Portuguese. 

All Portuguese territories were captured and with the fall of Jaffna on June 24, 1658, the Portuguese were completely expelled from the Island. The treaty entered into by the king and the Dutch stipulated that the Portuguese territories captured should be surrendered to the king in return for a monopoly of the export trade of the country. But the treacherous Dutch did not fulfil the conditions stipulated in the treaty. Soon the Dutch became traitors and ended their career as masters. 

In the reign of Raja Singha II, Kandy reached the peak of its power. Never before, and possibly never again, did Kandy show signs of so much strength and vitality as it did under this able and astute monarch. He had a son and daughter from his right and lawful Queen from Malabar coast

He died after a reign of fifty five years on Dec 6, 1687, and was succeeded by his son Mahastenne. 

191. VIMALA DHARMA SURIYA II  1687-1707 AD – Son of King Rajasinghe II – whose son Mahastenne, ascended the throne, and took the name of Vimala Dharma Suriya II. He was by nature a religious and non-ambitious man who lived at peace with the Dutch. He married the daughter of Mahesi from Madurai and reigned for 19 years. 

192. SRI VIRA PARAKRAMA NARENDRA SINGHA  1707-1739 AD – Son of Vimala Dharma Suriya II – Was seventeen years old when he ascended the throne and was a temple of wisdom, valor and virtue. He conferred special favors on a novice bhikku named Saramkara, who was a poet, preacher, controversialist, and teacher of great reknown. At the instance of the king this bhikku composed the religious book titled “Sarattha Sangaha” consisting of 11,000 gathas (verses) and also translated the “Maha Bodhivamsa” and the “Bhesajja Manjusa”, a medical work, into Sinhala.  

He was a very pious monarch, who, like his father, lived at peace with the Dutch and devoted himself to the furtherance of literature and religion. In 1708 the king married a bride from Madurai, the daughter of Pitti Nayakkar. Again, in 1770, he married another bride who came to Lanka from Madurai. He had no children by either of the queens. He also had a Kandyan wife, a noble lady of exquisite beauty, the daughter of Monaravila Dissave of Matale, a great favorite of the King’s father. She bore him a son, but the boy died at a very early age. The king also had a concubine, a woman of high caste, who bore a son named Unambuwe, who did survive. The bar to his succession was the lack of royal status in the mother. 

Thus, the king nominated, as his successor, the brother of his first queen who had remained at the court ever since his sister married him. He reigned for 32 years. 

Beginning of Nayakkar Dynasty 

193. SRI VIJAYA RAJA SINGHA  1739-1747 AD – Brother-in-law of King Narendra SinghaNarendra Singha’s first wife brother, from Madurai, ascended the throne of Kandy, as Sri Vijaya Raja Singha. He came from the line of Vijayanagar kings of South India and henceforth filled the Sinhala throne. 

Sri Vijaya Raja Singha was a man of considerable culture and devoted his attention almost entirely to the furtherance of the national religion. He is said to have caused life sized images of Buddha in recumbent, standing and sitting postures to be cut in the rock caves in various parts of the country. 

He married a bride from the Royal family of Madurai. 

194. KIRTI SRI RAJA SINGHA  1747-1782 AD – Sri Vijaya Raja Singha’s wife’s eldest brother from MaduraThe second of the South Indian line. He was a tender young man when he succeeded his brother-in-law, and it was not until the year 1751 that he ascended the throne as Kirti Sri Raja Singha. He devoted the first few years of his reign to the advancement of literature and religion. 

The king, with the assistance of the Dutch, got down learned Bhikkus from Siam (Thailand) for the purpose of advancing Buddhism in Lanka. It was during this period that the Raja Maha Vihara (Gangarama) was built at Kandy

He married the daughter of one Nadukattu Sami Nayakkar in 1749. He further contracted three other Nayakkar marriages but had no children from the madurai queens. He had six daughters and two sons by his favorite Sinhala lady (Yakada Doli), daughter of the late Dissave (Headman) of Bintenna, grand-daughter of the blind and aged Mampitiya Dissave. Both his sons survived the king and his daughters married Nayakkar relatives of the king. Mampitiya’s sons claim for the throne were overlooked and the choice fell on the king’s brother who was living in court. 

In spite of all the difficulties that the king had faced during his reign, the sentimental attachment to the King of Kandy, Kirti Sri Raja Singha. It was seen that this feeling was intensified with the religious revival. The King died in 1782. 

195. SRI RAJADHI RAJA SINGHA  1782-1798 AD – Brother of Kirthi Sri Raja Singha – Ascended the throne as Sri Rajadhi Raja Singha having come from South India while still a child. He was raised as a Kandyan and a Sinhala and was a brilliant pupil of the chief prelate of the Malwatte Temple at that time. He was a very cultured person and learned many languages amongst which were Pali and Sanskrit. A great lover of poetry he himself was a poet. A lavish patron of Buddhism he died childless in 1798 without nominating a successor. The burden fell on Pilimatalava, the first Adigar (Prime Minister), who was an able, ambitious and intriguing chief, to select a successor to the vacant throne. (Monarchs of Sri Lanka by H M Mervyn Herath)

196. SRI VIKRAMA RAJA SINGHA  1798-1815 AD – Son of a sister of King Rajadhi Raja Singha’s Queen Upendramma - (beginning of British Colonial era). Sri Vickrama Raja Singha, who ascended the throne was known as Prince Kannasamy, whose father was Venkata Perumal who died before the child was born. The widow, Subhamma, and her son, Kannasamy, came to Lanka on the invitation of her sister, Queen Upendramma, Queen of King Rajadhi Rajasinghe. Their was a rival claimant to succeed King Rajadhi Raja Singha, the brother of Queen Upendramma, who had a stronger claim. However, Pilimatalava, the first Adigar (Prime Minister) saw to it that the South Indian Prince, who was barely 18 years old, was placed on the Kandyan Throne, because he had a deep seated plan to oust him and become king himself and set up a new dynasty of his own. Sri Vikrama Raja Singha did not have the advantage, either of the family background or the preliminary training which the preceeding three kings before him had. He came to the throne “like a flame of fire in darkness” and proceeded to rule “radiating great merit, splendor, authority and prowess and delighted the people with the fourfold virtues, charity, affability, service and impartiality. 

Up to the time of Sri Vikrama Raja Singha, the British who had succeeded the Dutch in the maritimeprovinces, had not interfered in the politics of the Sinhala Kingdom of the hill country. Pilimatalava, the first Adigar of the king had secret talks with the British in order to dishonor the king in Sinhala eyes, and also to urge him to an act of aggression which could give the British an excuse to seize the Kandyan Kingdom

These intrigues were eminently successful. The King, exasperated by the alternate threats, committed the “desired act of aggression”. War was at once declared. The king had fled and the king’s cabinet had also evacuated the city. The British reached Kandy on March 22, 1803 and found the capital deserted. 

On June 24, 1803, the Adigar massacred the British troops stationed in kandy and restored Sri Vikra Raja Singha to the throne. The Adigar, Pilimatalava, instead of seizing the crown, conspired to kill the King and seize the crown. His evil plot was discovered and he was pardoned on two occasions. However, when he was accused for the third time the king ordered his execution. 

Pilimatalava was succeeded by his nephew, Ehelepola, and as he too began to plot against the king, Sri Vikrama Raja Singha could not tolerate his evil anymore through constant fear of assassination. 

When, in 1818, a rebellion broke out in Sabaragamuwa and Ehelepola was implicated in it, the king ordered the Adigar to return to the Capital. However, Ehelepola knew the fate that awaited him and fled to the British in Colombo. The king dismissed him from his high office, confiscated his lands, and cast his wife and children in prison. They were, then, executed. The eldest boy, who was eleven years old, clung to his mother terrified and crying; her second son, nine years old, with all the inspiration of martyrdom, heroically stepped forward and bade his brother not to be afraid – as he would show him the way to die. By one blow of a sword his head was severed and thrown into a rice pounding mortar where the pestle was put into the mothers hand and she was ordered to pound it. One by one, the heads of all the children were cut off and, one by one, the mother had to pound them in the mortar. The mother was later drowned in the King’s ornamental Bogambara Lake

The whole of Kandy wept and sobbed unable to suppress their feelings of grief and horror. 

The British started to make extensive preparations for the invasion of the King’s dominion with the assistance of Ehelepola. The principal reasons stated for the invasion were the alleged tyranny of the king and his unwillingness to enter into any terms with the British. 

The king, finding the situation hopeless, abandoned the capital and fled to Medamaha-Nuwara, where he took refuge in a house of a peasant. King Sri Vikrama Raja Singha was captured and taken prisoner with his Queen Venkata Angammal. 

On Mar 2, 1815, Lanka was ceded to the British under a treaty called the Kandyan Convention. With Sri Vikrama Raja Singha ended, not only the last vestige of national freedom but also a civilization based on an entire and unique ethno-religious social philosophy, which our forefathers, with their toil, sweat, blood, and tears, had protected for 2,358 years. The downfall of the Sinhala Kingdom was mainly caused by the disunity of the people themselves. The Lion Flag which King Vijaya had planted in 544 BC was finally handed down. 

The King was taken to Colombo on Mar 6, 1815, where he remained until Jan 24, 1816, when he and all his relatives, dependents, and adherents, amounting about 100 individuals, were transferred to India. They were first sent to Madras and finally to the fort of Vellore, where Sri Vikrama Raja Sinha died of dropsy on Jan 30, 1832, aged 52 years. The ex-king’s body was cremated and ashes were floated down the river. The king had ruled for seventeen years. (Monarchs of Sri Lanka by H M Mervyn Herath)

End of Nayakkar Dynasty 

Names of Tamil Kings and their period of rule of Jaffnapatnam


1  KALINGAMAN alias KOOLANGAI SINGAI ARYAN alias KALINGA VIJEYABAHU 1210-1246 (when there was no successor to the Throne, Chieftan Pandi Malavan, who hailed from the village of Ponpatti went to Madurai and brought Prince Singai Aryan and crowned him as King of Jaffna) 

2  KULASEKARA SINGAI ARYAN 1246-1256 son of Koolangai Singai Aryan

3  KULOTUNGA SINGAI ARYAN 1256-1279 son of Kulasekara Singai Aryan

4  VIKRAMA SINGAI ARYAN 1279-1302 son of Kulotunga Singai Aryan

5  VAROTYA SINGAI ARYAN 1302-1325 son of Vikrama Singai Aryan

6  MARTANDA SINGAI ARYAN 1325-1348 son of Varotya Singai Aryan

7  KUNAPUSHANA SINGAI ARYAN 1348-1371 son of Martanda Singai Aryan

8  VIROTAYA SINGAI ARYAN 1371-1380 son of Kunapushana Singai Aryan

9  JAYAWIRA SINGAI ARYAN 1380-1410 son of Virotaya Singai Aryan

10  KUNAWIRA SINGAI ARYAN 1410-1440 son of Jayawira Singai Aryan

11  **KANAGASURIYA SINGAI ARYAN 1440-1450 son of Kunawira Singai Aryan . From 1450 to 1467 the Jaffna Kingdom came under the rule of the Kotte Kingdom Troops which came under the command of Sapumal Kumaraya (alias Chengappa Perumal) captured Jaffna Sapumal Kumaraya was the adopted son of Parakrama Bahu VI Later Sapumal Kumaraya became King of Kotte under the name of King Bhuvanekabahu VI. He ruled Jaffna Kingdom for 17 years from 1450 to 1467


(adopted son of PARAKRAMA BAHU VI who was later known as BHUVANEKABAHU VI when he ruled the Kingdom of Kotte)

King Kanagasuriya Singai Aryan fled to TamilNadu and came back with an army and re-captured the Jaffna Kingdom and ruled again from 1467 to 1478


13  **KANAGASURIYA SINGAI ARYAN 1467-1478 son of Kunawira Singai Aryan (2nd reign)

14  SINGAI PARARAJASEKARAN 1478-1519 son of Kanagasuriya Singai Aryan

      Spouse #1: + Raja Lakshmi Ammal

      Spouse #2: + Valli Ammai

      Spouse #3: + Mangath Ammal  

15 SANKILI SEGARAJASEKARAN I 1519-1561 son of Singai Pararajasekaran & Mangath Ammal 

16  *PUVIRAJA PANDARAM PARARAJASEKARAN 1561-1565 son of Sankili Segarajasekaran 

17  KURUNCHI NAINAR 1565-1570 (Usurper) 


19  *PUVIRAJA PANDARAM PARARAJASEKARAN 1582-1591 (2nd reign) son of Sankili Segarajasekaran 

20  ETHIRIMANNA SINGA PARAJASEKARAN 1591-1615 (Portuguese Colonial Rule) son of Periya Pillai Segarajasekaran 

21  ARAKESARI 1615-1617 (Regent for the Infant Crown Prince, Leuke Kumaran, son of Ethirimanna Singa Pararajasekaran) 

22  SANKILI KUMARAN II 1617-1619 (Nephew of Ethirimanna Singa Pararajasekaran) 

Colonial Empires of Sri Lanka 

Portuguese Rule (15 Nov 1505-1638AD)

Dutch Rule (1685-1796AD)

British Rule (1796-1948AD)

Independence (Feb-4-1948 to date AD)

Period under British Rule 

1815-1820: King George III

1820-1830: King George IV

1830-1837: King William IV

1837-1901: Queen Victoria

1901-1910: King Edward VII

1910-1936: King George V

1936: King Edward VIII

1936-1952: King George VI

1952-1972: Queen Elizabeth II 

Governors & Governor Generals of Sri Lanka 

1798-1805: Hon Frederick North

1805-1811: Rt Hon Sir Thomas Maitland

1812-1820: Sir Robert Brownrigg

1820-1823: Sir Edward Paget

1824-1831: Sir Edward Barnes

1831-1837: Rt Hon Sir Robert Horton

1837-1841: Rt Hon James Mackenzie

1841-1847: Sir Colin Campbell

1847-1850: Rt Hon Viscount Torrington

1850-1855: Sir Geo Anderson

1855-1860: Sir Henry Ward

1860-1863: Sir Charles McCarthey

1865-1872: Sir Hercules Robinson

1872-1877: Rt Hon Sir William Gregory

1877-1883: Sir James Longden

1883-1890: Hon Sir Arthur Gordon

1890-1895: Sir Arthur Havelock

1895-1903: Rt Hon Sir J West Ridgeway

1903-1907: Sir Henry Blake

1907-1913: Sir Henry MacCallum

1913-1916: Sir Robert Charmers

1916-1918: Sir John Anderson

1918-1925: Sir William Manning

1925-1927: Sir Hugh Clifford

1927-1931: Sir Herbert Stanley

1931-1933: Sir Grame Thompson

1933-1937: Sir Reginald Edward Stubbs

1937-1944: Sir Andrew caldecott

1948-1949: Sir Henry Monck Mason Moore (Governor General 1948-1949)

1949-1954: Rt Hon Viscount Soulbury (Governor General)

1954-1962: Sir Oliver Goonetilleke (Governor General)1962-1972: William Gopallawa (Governor General) 

Prime Ministers of Sri Lanka 

1947-1952: Rt Hon Don Stephen Senanayake

1952-1953, 1960-1960 & 1965-1970: Dudley Senanayake

1953-1956: Sir John Kotalawela

1956-1959: Solomon West Ridgeway Bandaranaike

1959-1960: Dr W Dahanayake

1960-1965, 1970-1977, & 1994-2000: Ms Sirimavo Bandaranaike-Ratwatte

1977-1978: Junius Richard Jayawardena

1978-1989: Ranasinghe Premadasa

1989-1993: D. B. Wijetunga

1993-1994: Ranil Wickremasinghe

1994-1994: Ms Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga

2000-2002: Ratnasiri Wickramanayaka

2002-        : Ranil Wickremasinghe 

Presidents & Executive Presidents of Sri Lanka 

1972-1978: William Gopallawa (President)

1978-1989: Junius Richard Jayawardena (Executive President)

1989-1993: Ranasinghe Premadasa (Executive President)

1993-1994: D. B. Wijetunga (Executive President)

1994-        : Ms Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga (Executive President)

Post Independence Rule 

Data extracted from “Monarchs of Sri Lanka” by H.M.Mervyn Herath, ISBN 955-97483-0-0, July 2001 and other sources.

Book Review – Daily News, Friday September 7, 2001


by H.M. Mervyn Herath

There are a number of books available on ancient Sri Lankan history. Based on proven facts and evidences and also on myths and legends, historians have constructed and reconstructed of what had happened several centuries ago in this blessed isle. To me ancient Lankan history is a mystery and controversial because I find most books are interpretative and partisan depending on who writes for whom. But one thing is clear : the so-called Sinhalas and the so-called Thamilians, all belong to one ethnic stock with quite a measure of mixing of other ethnic stocks.

And of course they speak different languages partly because of adoption and partly due to cultural affinities. This is only a personal point of view and need not be taken as a reliable observation. But if we realize that all of us belong to one humankind, most of our silly ethnic wars would become non-existent. This can be realized only when there is an attitudinal change on the part of some diehard racists on both sides masquerading as politicians.

The book under review is a well-produced document with illustrations and is very handy and elegant. Within its 100 pages, the writer encompasses the highlights in Lankan history from B.C. 504 to 2000 A.D. in a chronological order. Beginning with King Vijaya, he ends with Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga. He calls the book Monarchs of Sri Lanka.

The contents of this book is lined-up in this manner: Vijaya to Sri Vickrama Raja Singha, Period Under British Rule (King George III, King George IV, King William IV, Queen Victoria, King Edward VII, King George V, King Edward VIII, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth II -only the photos),

Governors of Sri Lanka (Frederick North, Thomas Maitland, Robert Browning, Edward Paget, Edward Barnes, Robert Horton, James Mackenzie, Colin Campbell, Torrington, Geo Anderson, Henry Ward, Charles Mac Carthy, Hercules Robinson, William Gregory, James Longden, Arthur Gordon, Arthur Havelock, J. West Ridgeway, Henry Blake, Henry Maccallum, Robert Chalmers, John Anderson, William Manning, Hugh Clifford, Herbert Stanley, Graeme Thomson, Reginald Edward Stubbs, Andrew Caldecott, Monk Mason More, Oliver Goonetilleke, William Gopallawa - photos only)

Prime Ministers of Sri Lanka (D. S. Senanayake, Dudley Senanayake, John Kotalawala, S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike, W. Dahanayaka, Sirimavo Bandaranaike, J. R. Jayewardene, Ranasingha Premadasa, D. B. Wijetunga, Ranil Wickremesinghe, Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga, Ratnasiri Wickremanayaka (photos only),

Presidents and Executive Presidents of Sri Lanka (William Gopallawa, J. R. Jayewardene, Ranasingha Premadasa, D. B. Wijetunga, Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga (photos only)

What is the purpose of writing this book? The writer, H. M. Mervyn Herath explains:

" This booklet was compiled with the hope that it will satisfy the busy Sri Lankans of their long-felt want to acquire even briefly some knowledge about the past monarchs of their motherland".

He is also modest enough to say that "The work does not pretend by any means to be exhaustive or correct in all its details, although I am confident that the text is accurate, but I apologize for any mistakes that might exist."

The book is written in a simple style. I wish to refrain from commenting on the contents of the book, because it is the way he looks at history and it is his prerogative.

And yet it is a useful reference book in English for those of us who have no time to read academic works within a short time.

Mr. Mervyn Herath, some 30 years ago was a publisher (Hansa Publishers Ltd.) of qualty books and had worked at very top level for the British publishers, Vicktor Gollancz. He had also worked for the Marga institute. He published three books for children: Nilmini and Milinda, Tina and Honey in English and Sinhala. The first book also had a Thamil version. The National flag and The National Anthem of Sri Lanka - History and Significance is also by him. Presently he is involved in the preparation and submission of manuscripts in both Sinhala and English.

He had lectured in Pakistan on book publishing and also served as a consultant for the UNESCO. He is an accountant by profession.

Kings and Rulers of Sri Lanka

The Vihara’s ,buildings and Reservoirs

They built in Sri Lanka during their rule. 

Sri Lanka (Ceylon / Thambapanni )

The Island  is estimated to have been colonized by Mesolithic hunters who lived in caves 32000 BC.They appear to be responsible for creating Horton Plains. And evidence of agriculture 15000BC in that area.

Horton Plains

600BC Buddha visited Mahiyangana, Nagadipa and Kelani. 

King Vijaya 544BC-505BC 

 Landing of King Vijaya depicted in an Ajanta fresco.

Sri Lanka was then called Thambapanni.

King Vijaya arrives from India, with 700 followers.

At that time Kuveni was in Lanka.

King Vijaya’s grand mother was Suppa Devi,(daughter of King of Bengal)


Veddha people  are the aboriginal inhabitants of Lanka.Supposed to have been since 6th Century BC. 

King Panduvasudeva   504BC-474BC (son of King Vijaya’s brother)

Abhaya       474BC-454BC

Tissa           454BC-437BC 

King Pandukabaya 437BC-367BC (Anuradhapura)

Built Abhaya tank. 

Mutasiva  367BC-307BC 

King Devanampiyatissa 307BC-267BC 

King Devanampiyatissa hunting deer. 

King Devanampiyatissa worshiping Mahinda thera, son and envoy of King Asoka

of India 264BC-267BC 

Mahinda thera brought Buddhism to Sri Lanka , met King Devanampiyatissa at

Mihintale.(see picture above)  

Muttiyanganaya built by King Devanampiyatissa. 

Sri Maha Bodhi

Sangamitta brought bodhi tree branch from Buddha Gaya.(India)

She established the order for bhikkuni nuns.

Bo tree planted in 288BC

Isurumuniya by King Devanampiyatissa.

 Isurumuniya lovers Anuradhapura

Thuparamaya by King Devanampiyatissa. 

Uttiya 267BC-257BC

Maha Siva 257BC-247BC

Sura Tissa 247BC-237BC

Sena & Gutthila 237BC-215BC

Asela 215BC-205BC

King Elara 205BC-161BC 

King Elara invaded from South India.

Tomb of King Elara

King Kelani Tissa 161BC  (Capital Kelaniya )(Maya Rata)

Daughter of King Kelani Tissa is Vihara Maha Devi.,offered to sea gods,as sea waters threatened to drown villages.(probably a tsunami)

Vihara Maha Devi 

King Kelani Tissa’s son King Yaklakatissa built the Kelaniya Viharaya.


 King Kavan Tissa. 161BC (Ruhuna)

Kirinda ,where Vihara Maha Devi was found by King Kavan Tissa.

Magul Poruwa of King Kavantissa.

Tissamaharama Viharaya built by King Kavantissa.

Tissawewa built by King Kavantissa.

King Dutugemunu  161BC -137BC

Statue of King Dutugemunu in Anuradhapura.

Ruwanveliseya built by King Dutugemunu.

Mirisveti dagaba built by King Dutugemunu.

Lovamahapaya built by King Dutugemunu.

Saddhatissa 137BC-119BC

Thullattana  119BC

Lajjatissa 119BC-110BC

Khallatanaga 110BC-104BC

Valagambahu 1  104BC

Pulahata 103BC-100BC

Bahiya 100BC-98BC

Panayamara 98BC-91BC

Pilayamara 91BC

Dhatiya 90BC-88BC

King Valagambahu 88BC-76BC

Abhayagiriya built by King Valagambahu

Dambulla temple built by King Valagambahu

Maha Chula Maha Tissa 76BC-62BC

Chora Naga 62BC-50BC

Kuda Tissa 50BC-47BC

Anula Devi 47BC-41BC

Kuttauannatissa 41BC-19BC

Bhatika Abhaya 19BC-9BC

Maha Dhatika Mahanaga 9BC-21AD

Amanda Gamini Abhaya 21AD-30AD

Kaniru Janu Tissa 30AD-33AD

Chulabhaya 33AD-34AD

Queen Sivali

Ila Naga 34AD-44AD

Chandramuka Siva 44AD-52AD

Yasalaka tissa 52AD-60AD

Sri Lanka coin - 1st Centuary. 

Subha 60AD-66AD

Vasabha 66AD-110AD

Vankanasikatissa 110AD-113

Gajabahu 1       113-125

Mahalaka Naga 125-131AD

Bhatika Tissa 131-155

Kanittha Tissa 155-183

Khula Naga 183-185

Khuda Naga 185-186

Siri Naga 186-205, Sri Naga rebuilt Lovamahapaya up to 5 stories.

Voharika Tissa 205-227

Abhaya Naga 227-235

Siri Naga 235-237

Vijaya Kumara 237-238

Sangha Tissa 238-242

Siri Sangha Bodhi 242-244

Gothabaya 244-257

Jettha Tissa 1      267-269

King Mahasena  269AD-296AD

King Mahasena built several tanks.

King Mahasena

Jethavanaramaya built by King Mahasena

Kiri Vehera at Kataragama built by King Mahasena.

King Mahasena’s palace.

King Kit Siri Meghavanna    296AD-324AD   (son of King Maha Sena)

Princess Hemamala and Prince Danta bringing the Buddha’s tooth relic to Lanka.

Tooth relic restored at this site.

Perahera with tooth relic. 

Jettha Tissa 11      324-333

Buddhadasa          333-362

Upatissa 1             362-404

Mahanama            404-426

412-413 Chinese traveler Fa-Hian arrive and visits Anuradhapura

Sotthisena             426

Janthu                   426-427

Mittasena              427-428

Pandu                    428-433 (Tamil Invader)

Parinda                 433

Khuda Parinda       433-449

Tiri tara                449

Dhatiya                 449-452

Pithiya                   452

King Dhatusena  452AD-470AD  (Anuradhapura)

Aukana Buddha Statue by King Dhatusena.

Kala wewa built by King Dhatusena

King Kasyapa- Sigiriya  470 AD- 488AD

Sigiriya built by King Kasyapa

Sigiriya (entrance) built by King Kasyapa.

Sigiriya fresco

Sigiriya fresco

Sigiriya fresco

Sigiriya fresco

Sigiriya fresco


Mogallana                    488-506

Kumara Dhatusena       506-515

Kirtisena                      515

Siva                              515

Upatissa 11                  515-517

Silakala                        517-530

Dhathapatissa               530

Moggalana  11              530-550

Krti sri megha              550

Mahanaga                     550-553

Agga Bodhi 1                553-587

Agga Bodhi 11              587-597

Sangha Tissa 11            597

Dalla Moggalana            597-603

Sila Mogavanna             603-612

Agga bodhi 3                612-628

Jehatissa                      613

Aggabodhi 3                 613-623

Dathopatissa                 623-636

Kassapa                        636-645

Dappula                        645

Dathopa Tissa 2             645-654

Aggabodhi 1V                654-670

Datta                            670-672

Halha datha                   672

Manavamma                  672-707

AggabodhiV                   707-713

Kassapa 111                  713-720

Mahinda                        720-723

Sila Megha                    723-763

Aggabodhi V11             763-769

Mahinda 11                   769-789

Dappula11                     789-794

Mahinda 111                  794-798

Aggabodhi V111            798-809

Dappula111                   809-825

Aggabodhi1X                 825-827

Sena 1                          827-847

Sena 11                        847-882

Udhaya 1                       882-893

Kassapa 1V                    893-910

Kassapa V                      913-920

Dappula1V                     920

Dappula V                      920-922

Udhaya 11                     922-925

Sena 111                       925-934

Udaya 111                     934-942

Sena 1V                         942-945

Mahinda 1V                   945-961

Sena V                          961-971

Mahinda V                     971-1007

Rajadhiraja                   1007-1019

Kassapa V1                    1019-1031(Vikrama bahu)

Kirti                              1031

Mahalana Kirti               1031-1034

Vikrama Pandu              1034-1035

Jagatpala                      1035-1039

Lokeshvara                   1039-1045

Kassapa V11                  1045

Polannaruwa period

Vijayabahu   1045AD-1095AD 


Built by Vijayabahu     

 Built by Vijayabahu 1 to restore tooth relic. 

Jayabahu 1                    1095

Vicramabahu 1              1096-1117

Gajabahu11                   1117-1138 

Parakramabahu 1          1140AD-1173AD   (Polannaruwa) 

Parakramabahu 1    (Polanaruwa) 


Gal Viharaya built by Parakramabahu 1    

Audence hall- Parakramabahu 1

Near Parakramabahu audience hall

Rajasabawa- Parakramabahu

Parakrama Samudraya built by King Parakramabahu 1

Vijayabahu 11                1173-1174

Mahinda V1                   1174

King Nissanka Malla   1174AD-1183AD

King Nissanka malla built the Rankot vihara.


Made by King Nissanka Malla to restore tooth relic.

King Nissankamalla is supposed to have visited Adams Peak and worshiped the foot print.He had constructed a concrete slab to protect the foot print.

Adams Peak

Virabahu (1day)

Vickramabahu11            1183

Coda Naga                     1183-1184

Queen Leelawathi          1184-1187

Sahassa Malla                1187-1189

Queen Kalyanawathi       1189-1195

Dhammasoka                 1195-1196

Anikanga                       1196

Queen Leelawathi          1196-1197

Lokissara                      1197

Queen Leelawathi          1197-1198

Parakrama Pandu           1198-1201

Megha                           1201-1222                                 Jaffnapatnam

                                                                                    1210-1246 Koolangaisigai Aryan


Vijayabahu 3    (1222AD-1226AD) 

Tooth relic restored in Beligala by Vijayabahu 3

Parakramabahu 2  (1222AD-1257AD)


                                                                                    1246-1256 Kulasekara Singai Aryan

                                                                                    1256-1279 Kulotunga Singai Aryan

Tooth relic restored in Dambadeniya.

Vijayabahu 1V    1257-1259

Mitta                            1259 

Bhuvanekabahu 1    (1259AD-1270AD)*

Tooth relic restored in Yapahuwa.

Chandrabanu                 1270

Parakramabahu 111       1270-1275

Bhuvanekabahu 11         1275-1277

Parakramabahu 1V     (1277AD-1301AD)

Tooth relic in charge of Uttaramulla monestary in Kurunegala.

1290 Marco Polo arrives in Ceylon.

Bhuvanekabahu 111                   1301-1307 

Vijayabahu V                             1307AD


                                                                                    1279-1302 Vicrama Singai Aryan

                                                                                    1302-1325 Varotya Singai Aryan

                                                                                    1325-1348 Martanda Singai Aryan

                                                                                   1348-1371 Kunapushna Singai Aryan

Bhuvanekabahu 1V                     1341-1351 Gampola

Vicramabahu 111                       1357-1374

Vickramabahu 111  in 1371 is supposed to have had a garden,at the present Peradeniya botanical garden site. 

Bhuvanekabahu V  (1357AD-1374AD) 

 Tooth relic restored in Kotte.

Vira Bahu  1408-1410 

Parakramabahu V                     1344-1359


Sunethra devi+Chandrabanu


                                                                                    1371-1380 Virotya Singai Aryan

                                                                                    1380-1410 Jayawira Singai Aryan

                                                                                    1410-1440 Kunawira Singai Aryan

                                                                                    1440-1450 Kanagasuriya Singai Aryan

King Parakramabahu V1 1410AD- 1466AD 

Bellanwila Raja Maha Vihara.

Also built during this period Kotte Raja Maha Vihara.

Arabs are supposed to have come to Ceylon ,as traders during this period.Thus the Muslims of Ceylon, originated.

Vira Parakramabahu V11 1466-69 (Grandson of Parakramabahu V1)

(Jayavira)                                                                     Jaffnapatnam

                                                                                    1450-1467 Sapumal Kumaraya or

                                                                                    Chenpagap Perumal.Adopted son of

                                                                                    Parakramabahu V1

Bhuvanekabahu V1     1469-1477 (Sapumal Kumaraya)(Parakramabahu V1’s adopted son marched from yapapatuna and killed Jayavira and became king)

Panditha Parakramabahu   1477 (adopted son of Bhuvanekabahu V1)

Vira Parakramabahu   1477-1489(brother of Parakrama bahu V1)

(VPB had 2 queens.1st queen gave Bhuvanekabahu ,Sri Rajasinghe,Vijayabahu.

2hd queen gave Sakkalavalla,Tanyavalla)

Dharma Parakramabahu 1X 1489-1509( Bhuvanekabahu took the name of Dharma Parakramabahu and became king)

1505 Arrival of Portuguese ( Don Loureno de Almeida)

Port of Colombo built.

They traded Cinamon.They built the Colombo Fort.

Portuguese Admiral Alfonso Albuquerque (1490-1515)new the importance of the Trincomalee Harbour.(Portuguese,Dutch,French and the English have had many sea battles nearby.)

Vijaya Bahu V1   1509-1524(brother of Dharma Parakramabahu)

Vijayabahu from queen Anula Khatuda had Maha Raiygam Bandara,Bhuvanekabahu,Pararajasinghe,and Mayadunne.

From Vijayabahu’s 2hd queen (kiravelle biso bandara) There was a son Deva Rajasinghe.

                                                                                    Portuguese rulers

                                                                                    1518 Joao de Silveira

                                                                                    1518-1522 Lepo de Brito

                                                                                    1522-1524 Fernao Gomes de Lemos

                                                                                    Nallur Palace Jaffna

                                                                                    1467-1478 Kanagasuriya Singai


                                                                                    1478-1519 Singai Pararajasekaran

                                                                                    1519-1561 Sankili Segaraja Sekaran

                                                                                    1561-1565 Puvirajha Pararajasekaran

King Buvanekabahu V11 (1524AD-1551AD)*

Between 1515-97 the Island was divided into 4 Kingdoms.Kandy,Sitawaka,Jaffna and Hath Korale (later a province) and 4 provinces.Hath Korale, Matara,Denavaka and Nuwara kalawiya.

Samudra devi + Vediya Bandara (he is the grand son of Sakkalavalla above)

                                                                                    Portuguese rulers

                                                                                    1524-51 Office Abolished

Don Juan Dharmapala               1551-1597* Kotte

1557 Portuguese convert Dharmapala to Catholic.Portuguese confiscate property of Buddhist and Hindu,who dont convert.

                                                                                    Portuguese rulers

                                                                                    1551-1552 Joao Henriques

                                                                                    1552-1553 Duarto de Ela

                                                                                    1555-1559 Alfonso Periera

                                                                                    1559-1560 Jorge de Menses

                                                                                  1560-1564 Balthasar Guedes de Sousa

                                                                                    1564-1565 Pedro de Ataide Inferno

                                                                                    1565-1568 Diego de Melo

                                                                                    1568-1570 Fernando de Mouroy

                                                                                    1570-1572 Diego de Melo

                                                                                    1572-1575 Antonio de Noronha

                                                                                   1575-1578 Fernando de Albuquerque

                                                                                    1578-1580 Manual de Sousa


                                                                                    Nallur Palace Jaffna

                                                                                    1565-1570 Kurunchi Nainar

                                                                                    1570-1582 Periyapillai


                                                                                    1582-1591 Puviraja Pararajasekaran      

                                                Portuguese rulers in Ceylon

                                                1580-1598 Philippe 1

                                                1598-1621 Phillipe 2

                                                1594 Pedrolopes de Souse

                                                1594-1613 D Jeronimo de Azerado

                                                1613-1614 D Francisco de Meneses

                                                1614-1616 Manual Mascarenlias Homem

                                                1616-1618 Nuno Alvares Pereira

                                                1618-1622 Constantino de Saenoventra

Mayadunne **1551AD-1581AD (Sitawaka)(brother of Bhuwanekabahu V11)

Rajasinghe 1(tikiri bandara)       **1581-1593

Vimala Dharmasuriya 1   (1592AD-1604AD) Konappu bandara (Kandy)

1592 Vimala Dharmasuriya builds a wall around city of Kandy.

1595 Tooth relic brought to Kandy.

                                                                        Nallur Palace Jaffna

                                                                        1591-1615 Ethirmanasinghe


                                                                        1615-1617 Arakesari


                                                                     1617-1619 Sinkili Kumaran II                                                                               







                                                                                    Jaffna Royal flag

                                                                        Sinkili Kumaran was taken prisoner

                                                                        By Portuguese and sent to Goa.

 King Vimala Dharmasuriya 1 with Dutch Explorer in 1602.

Senarath                       1604-1635(cousin of vimaladharmasuriya)

                                                            Portuguese rulers in Ceylon (cont)

                                                            1621-1640 Phileppe 111            

                                                            1622-1630 Jorge de Albuquerque

                                                            1630-1631 D Philepe Mascaredus

                                                            1631-1633 D Jorge de Almeida

                                                            1633-1635 Diego de mello de Castro

Portuguese force Buddhists and Hindus to become Christians.                                          


Portuguese coin

Rajasinghe 2   (1635AD-1687AD) (son of Senarath)

                                                            Portuguese rulers in Ceylon (cont)

                                                            1635-1636 D Jorge de Almeida

                                                            1636-1638 Diego de mello de Castro

                                                            1638-1640 D Antonio Mascorentas

                                                            1640-1645 Jhon 1V of Braganza

                                                            1640-1645 D Phillipo Mascarendus

                                                            1645-1653 Manual Masconbas Hamases

                                                            1653-1655 Francisco de Mello de Castra

                                                            1655-1656 Antonio de Sousa Continho

                                                            1656-1658 Antonio de Amaral de Menezes (Jaffna)

Dutch arrive in Lanka in 1638

Dutch Ships

Later dutch fight with Portuguese and Portuguese surrender.

Dutch take control in 1658

1668 Dutch trade in gems and cinnamon.

1670 Madhu Church is built.(Built by a daughter of a Portuguse General)

Dutch coin

Vimaladharmasuriya 11            1687-1707 (son of Rajasinghe 2)

Dutch help Vimaladharmasuriya to get a bride from Madura

Dutch helps to bring Buddhist monks from Burma.

                                                            Dutch Governors in Ceylon 1670-1796

                                                            1640-         William J Costor

                                                            1640-1646  Jan Thyszoon Payart

                                                            1646-1650 Joan Maartzuyker

                                                            1650-1653 Jacob Van Kittensteyn

                                                            1653-1660 Adrian Vander Meyden

                                                            1660-1661 Rykelef Van Goons

                                                            1661-1663 Adrian Vander Meyden

                                                            1663-1664 Jacob Hustaart

                                                            1664-1675 Ryklof Van Goons

                                                            1675-1679 Ryklof Van Goons (Jr)

                                                            1679-1692 Lourens Pyl

                                                            1692-1697 Thomas Van Rhee

                                                            1697-1702 Gerrit de Heere

                                                            1702-1706 Cornelis Jan Simons

In 1700 Dutch built the Jaffna Fort 



Tooth relic temple built by Vimaladharmasuriya.

1694 Export of Spices,Pearls & gems.Import of pepper,cotton,tin,Zinc.

Dutch Church in Galle

Dutch resort to trade.

Sri Vira Parakrama Narendra Singhe    1707-1739 (son of Vimaladharmasuriya 2)

He also brings a bride from Madura. Tooth relic temple developed.

                                                            Dutch Governors of Ceylon (cont)

                                                            1706-1716 Hendrick Becker

                                                            1716-1723 Isaac Augustin Rumpf

                                                            1723-1726 Johannes Hertenberg

                                                            1726-1729 Petrus Vuyst

                                                            1729-1732 Stephanus Versluys

                                                            1732-1734 Jacob Christian Pielac

                                                            1734-1736 Diederick Van Domberg

                                                            1736-1739 Gustaaf.W.B Van Imhoff


Wolvendal church in Colombo built by Dutch in 1749

Dondra Head Light House.

Dutch buildings in Galle 

Sri Vijaya Raja Singhe  1739-1747 Kandy (BIL of SVPNS)

1742 Dutch help king with ships to bring back Buddhism.

1745 Dutch appoint Muhandirams to rule villages.

                                                            Dutch Governors in Ceylon (cont)

                                                            1739-1742 Willern Maurits Bruyninck

                                                            1742-1743 Daniel Overbeck

                                                            1743-1751 Julias V Van Gullenesses

Dutch brought Malay soldirs to fight wars.

Mode of transport for kings were the palanquin. 

Kirti Sri Rajasinghe     (1747AD-1782 AD )  Kandy (BIL of SVRS)

1747 Esela perahera starts in Kandy.

1749 Stone wall around Sri Mahabodhiya.                                                           


King Rajasinghe brings back buddhism from Siam,as it had almost died out due to the influence and destruction of the Portuguese.

Velivita Saranankara thera learned pali to gain access to Thripitaka.In 1753 he was conferred Upasampada.

1753 Samanakkodi Adigar participates in the bringing of Buddhism to Sri Lanka.In 1760 he is put to death for plotting against the King.



                                                            Dutch Governors in Ceylon (cont)

                                                            1751-1752 Gerad Joan Vreeland

                                                            1752-1757 Johan Gideon Loten

                                                            1757-1762 Jan Sebrenden

                                                            1762-1765 LJ Baron Van Eck

                                                            1765-1785 Imam Wilem Falck

1781 British war with Dutch.

1782 Rajasinghe falls from horse and dies.

1782-1784 French occupy Trincomalee.

Sri Rajadhi Rajasinghe (1782AD-1798AD)(Brother of Kirti Sri Rajasinghe)


Wevurukannala viharaya built by King Sri Rajadhi Rajasinghe. 

                                                            Dutch Governors in Ceylon (cont)

                                                            1785-1794 Willem J Van de Graaf

                                                            1794-1796 JG Van Angelbeck 

British take over Colombo from Dutch in 1796AD 

Gangaramaya built in 1805

 Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe (1798AD-1815AD)(Kirti Sri Rajasinghe’s nephew)




 Dalada Maligawa 19th Centuary 


Dalada Maligawa  

 Tooth Relic at Dalaa Maligawa.


Dalada Maligawa 


Kandy Lake built by King Sri Wickrema Rajasinghe.


Kandy Lake.

Kandy Perahera

1801 British set up 170 Catholic Schools.

1802 British favour Muslims.

1803 Third local regiment formed by British (Malays only again)

1807 Kandy Lake is complete.

1811 Pilimatalave beheaded by king for treason. Ehelapola becomes 1st Adigar.

1814 Ehelapola’s wife & 3 children king’s orders.

1814 4th local regiment formed comprising African troops.

Great people who fought against the British. 


Ehelapola Nilame 1810




Keppetipola                                         Keppetipola 


British take control of the island in 1815. 

2/3/1815 Kandyan convention signed .

6/3/1815 King Sri Wikrema Rajasinghe taken to Colombo.

24/1/1816 King taken to Madras India.

30/1/1832 King dies at age of 52 years. 

1817-1818 Great rebellion against the British

1818 Keppetipola executed by British.

Ehelapola was banished to Mauritius, and later died in 1829. 

British Governors of Lanka


Fredrick North 1798-1805 


Sir Thomas Maitland  1805-1811                           

Residence of Thomas Maitland (now Mt Lavinia Hotel) 

Sir Robert Brownrigg 1812-1820 

1818 Tooth relic captured by British

1819 Rajakariya system to build roads.

1820 Polannaruwa discovered after 700 years.

1820 Miracle occurs.Silver rays projected to sky from pinnacle of Dalada temple.

1820 Anuradhapura discovered. 


                                                            Peradeniya Botanical garden developed in 1821 

Edward Barnes  1820-1822 


1821 coin

Edward Paget 1822

James Campbell 1822-1824 

1824 Population in Ceylon is 851,940

1825 Colombo- Kandy road completed using rajakariya system with the participation of Don Soloman Dias Bandaranaike.

1826 Mahavamsa discovered. 

Edward Barnes 1824-1831


                                                                               Royal College built 1832

1830 Caste tactic to divide Sinhalese.

1833 Legislative Council set up.


Robert Wilmot Horton 1831-1837 

James Alexander Mackanzie 1837-1841

Colin Campbell 1841-1847

Viscount Torrington 1847-1850

1846 Veera Puran Appu killed by firing squad at Bogambara after the Matale Rebellion.

Veera Puran Appu memorial

1849 Gongalegoda Banda exiled to Malacca.


St Thomas’s College 1852 (Originally built in Mutwal)

Mt Lavinia 

Sir George William 1850-1855

Henry George Ward 1855-1860

Charles Justin Maccarthy 1860-1863 

1862 Thuparamaya restored.

1863 Panadura debate. 


Railways started 1864

Terrance O’Brian 1863-1865




                                                                                    Rubber 1877


                                                                                    Tea  1873

Indian tamils were brought for tea & rubber estate work. 

Sir Hercules Robinson 1865-1872 


Galle Face Hotel 1864


1874 Law College

Arrival of Sir Henry Olcott.

1876 Kirindi Oya Project completed.


                                                                        Museum 1877

Colombo Harbour 1900

Colombo 1900

 William Henry Gregory 1872-1877

1880 Buddhist flag designed by JR de Silva and Henry Olcott to mark revival of buddhism in Ceylon

Henry Olcott(b 1832) and Hikkaduwe Sumangala thera.(1827-1911)

Photo taken in 1880. 

Sir James Longdon 1877-1883 



 Arthur Hamilton 1883.-1890 

1885 Lady Ridgeway Hospital

1885 Revival of Islam

1885 Majority of schools are in Jaffna.

1888 Due to grain tax ,1048 peasants die due to starvation.

Arthur Elibank Havelock 1890-1895 

1891 Indian tamils number 235,000.

1895 Matara railway opened. 

Joseph West Ridgeway 1896-1903 

1901 Sinhalese park ,Mahamevna uyana discovered.

1901 Population is 3,560,000

1903 Colombo population is 6000. 

1900 Galle Road

Main Street

Queens Street

York Street 

Sir Henry Arthur Blake 1903-1907 

1905 Jaffna railway introduced.

1905 Rubber boom. 

Sir Henry Edward Maccalum 1907-1913

Robert Chalmers 1913-1915

1911 population is 4,106,500

1914 World War 1 

Sinhala Muslim riots in Gampola 1915 .Due to riots 107 Sinhalese die. 

Reginold Edward Stubbs 1915-1916 actg

Sir Jhon Anderson 1916-1918 actg

Reginold Stubbs 1918 actg

Sir William Henry Manning 1918-1925

1920 Govt schools-919.Christian Schools 2122

1921 Population- 4,500,000 

Edward Bruce Alexander 1925

Sir Hugh Clifford 1925-1927

Sir Herbert James Stanley 1928-1931

1930 Govt Schools 2122 Christian Schools 2502 

Sir Grame Thompson 1931-1933

1931 Population 5,310,000

1931 Donoughmore Constitution introduced. 

Dehiwela Zoo built 1936 

Reginold Edward Stubbs 1933-1937 

1942 Colpetty

Sir Andrew Caldcoll 1937-1944

1940 Ruwanveliseya restored.(It took 47 years)

1942 Colombo University

World war 2 (1939-1945)

1942 Japanese bomb Colombo.

Sir Henry Mock Mason Moore 1944-1948

1947 GG Ponnambalam joins UNP 

Great people who fought to obtain Independence to Sri Lanka. 

Edmund Samarakkody (Became MP from LSSP)

He went to Jail for short term under British in 1940’s 

SWRD Bandaranaike (Became PM from SLFP) 

DS Senanayake (Became PM from UNP) 

 Dr NM Perera (Became MP from LSSP,and Opposition leader) 

 Phillip Gunerwardena (Became Minister) 

Henry Pedris

He was killed by the British in 1915. 

Anagarika Dharmapala

George E de Silva (Became Minister) 


FR Senanayake (Became MP)

Lesli Gunerwardena (Became MP)

DM Rajapakse (Became MP)

GG Ponnambalam (Became MP) 

Independence received on 4th February 1948. to Sri Lanka


Buddhist 70%              Hindu 15%                 Islam 7.5%                Christian 7.5%

(Sinhalese)                    (Tamils)             (Muslims&Malay)  (Burghur,Tamil,Sinhala


Independence celebration (1998) 

Independence square  

National Anthem 


Governor General of Ceylon 

Henry Mason Moore

Herald Ramsbotham

Oliver Goonethileke      1954-1962 

William Gopallawa  1962-1972  and non executive President 22/5/1972-4/2/1978. 

Prime Ministers under West Minister based political system. 

Old Parliament. 

 Don Stephen Senanayake (14/10/1947-22/3/1952)(UNP)Prime Minister

                                                                                    (Leader of Opposition)

                                                                                    (NM Perera)

Developed Agriculture.Made the Gal Oya Project.

DS Senanayake with Cabinet Ministers

Central Bank of Ceylon built in 1950

1952 Peradeniya University.

 Dudley Senanayake (26/31952-12/10/1953)(UNP)Prime Minister

                                                                                                (Leader of Opposition)


                                                                                                (SWRD Bandaranaike)


Jhon Lionel Kotalawela  (12/10/1953-12/4/1956)Prime Minister

                                                                                                (Leader of Opposition)


                                                                                                (SWRD Bandaranaike)


                                                                        Kotalawela defence academy built in 1980


Solomon West Ridgeway Dias Bandaranaike (12/4/1956-26/9/1959)(SLFP)

Prime Minister                                                                      (Leader of Opposition)


                                                                                                (Dr NM Perera)

1957 Banda Chelva pact signed and withdrawn in 1958

He made Sinhala the official language.Riots in 1958.Assisinated by monk in 1959.

Wijeynanda Dahanayake (26/9/1959-21/3/1960)(LSSP) Prime Minister

                                                                                                (Leader of Opposition)

                                                                                                (CP de Silva)


Dudley Senanayake (21/3/1960-21/7/1960)(UNP)Prime Minister 

Sirimavo Ratwatte Bandaranaike (21/7/1960-27/3/1965)(SLFP)

(Worlds 1st Woman Prime Minister)

Escaped 1962 Coup.

                                                                                                (Leader of Opposition)


                                                                                                (Dudly Senanayake)


Dudley Senanayake (27/3/1965-29/7/1970)(UNP)

Prime Minister             


                                                                                                Sirima Bandaranaike

                                                                                                Leader of the Opposition                                   

1965 Dudly Chelva pact signed and withdrawn in 1968.. 

Sri Lanka becomes a republic on 22/3/1972 with a change of the constitution. 


Sirimavo Bandaranaike (29/5/1970-23/7/1977)(SLFP)

Prime Minister


                                                                                                (Leader of Opposition)

                                                                                                (JR Jayawardena)

She follows Socialist Policies.

Nationalized key sectors of economy(banking, insuarance)

Hardship to people due to closed economy.

Faced the 1971 JVP Insurgency.(about 10,000 died)(Led by Rohana Wijeweera)

Made the Uda Walawe Project.

Was Chairperson Non Aligned Movement in 1975.


BMICH built during Sirimavo govt for Non Aligned Summit.

Pinnawela elephant orphanage started in1975

Tourism developed.Several Tourist Hotels were built.Employment were given and valuable foreign exchange earned from tourism.

Junias Richard Jayawardena (23/7/1977-4/2/1978)(UNP)

Prime Minister

Victory with 5/6 Majority in parliament.

Executive President system is introduced with change of constitution.



JR Jayawardena (4/2/1978-2/1/1989) (UNP)

Executive President        

He changed the constitution.

He removed civic rights of Sirima Bandaranaike for 7 years.

Capital transferred from Colombo to Sri Jayawardena Pura.(Kotte)

Opened the heavily state controlled economy.

Made the Mahaweli Project(Victoria,Kotmale,Randenigala)

Free Trade Zone opened.

Rapid Development during his period.

1982 No General Election but a Referendum is held.

1977 and 1983 riots (3000 tamils die)

After 1983 riots 150,000 citizens migrate to western countries.

1983 Millionaire businessman Upali Wijewardena dies of plane crash.

1987 Indo Lanka Peace Accord    

Indian Peace Keeping Force (in North & East) 1987 -1989

Faced the tamil ethnic conflict (Eelam war 1)led by V Prabahakaran

Many go for foreign employment (Middle East), and earn valuable foreign exchange.

New Parliament 

Supreme Court Complex

Randenigala Dam

Victoria Dam

1 Ruppee (JR)

Presidents House.


                                                                   Ranasinghe Premadasa (6/2/1978-3/3/1989)

                                                                   Prime Minister 

                                                                  (Leader of Opposition)



                                                                  1983-1988 Anura Bandaranaike

1988 Presidential Election held, with violence. 

R Premadasa (2/1/1989-1/5/1993)(UNP)

Executive President 

Jana Saviya and Gam Udawa Projects

Faced the 1988-89 JVP Insurgency  (about 60,000 died) led by Rohana.Wijeweera

                                                                        (Wijeweera was killed by the Army)

Developed Garment factories.Thus gave employment and earned valuable foreign exchange.

He sent off the Indian Peace keeping force

1991 LTTE kill Rajiv Ghandhi Indian Prime Minister.

Faced the tamil ethnic conflict. (Eelam war 2)led by Prabhakaran

Died of a LTTE suicide bomb.On 1/5/1993.

Sethsiripaya complex


                                                                   DB Wijetunga (3/3/1989-2/5/1993)

                                                                   Prime Minister

                                                                        (Opposition Leader)

                                                                        (Sirima Bandaranaike 1989-94)                                                                     


Dingiri Banda Wijetunga (2/5/1993-12/11/1994)(UNP)

Executive President


                                                                   Ranil Wickremasinghe (7/5/1993-19/8/1994)

                                                                   Prime Minister(UNP)                                                           


                                                                Chandrika Kumaratunga (19/8/94-14/11/1994)

                                                                   Prime Minister(PA) 


                                                                        Gamini Dissanaike

                                                                        Opposition Leader

                                                                        Assasinated by LTTE

1994 Presidential Election held.People hope for Peace.

Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga(12/11/1994-19/11/2005)

Executive President   (SLFP/PA)   

Faced the tamil ethnic conflict.  (Eelam war 3) led by Prabhakaran

Central Bank destroyed by LTTE in 1995 by a bomb and re built later.

Army take control of Jaffna.

1996 Sri Lanka beat Australia  in cricket and win the world cup.

Escaped assassination attempt in 1999 but lost an eye.One day before the 1999

Presidential Election.

1998 Saarc Conference 



                                                                    Sirimavo Bandaranaike(14/11/94-10/8/2000)

                                                                    Prime Minister


                                                                Ratnasiri Wickremanayake(10/8/2000-9/12/01)

                                                                    Prime Minister


                                                                  (Opposition Leader)

                                                                  (1994-2001 Ranil Wickremasinghe)

2001 Muslim –Sinhala riot in Mawanella

2001 LTTE bomb Katunayake Airport.

2001 General Election held and Ranil Wickremasinghe wins.

2002 Cabinet


                                                                    Ranil Wickremasinghe(9/12/2001-6/4/2004)

                                                                        Prime Minister

Ceasefire agreement signed between V Prabahkaran and Ranil Wickremasinghe.Peace talks.Rapid development during this period.

 Ceasefire  lasted from 2002-2008.


                                                                   ( Opposition Leader)

                                                                   (2001-04 Mahinda Rajapakse)

JVP now in politics join PA for elections.

2003 Senior MP of UNP SB Dissanaike goes to jail .

2003 Parliament dissolved and elections held.Peoples Alliance wins.


                                                                    Mahinda Rajapakse(6/4/2004-21/11/2005)

                                                                    Prime Minister

Tsunami 26/12/2004 killed 30,000 Sri Lankans.

Presidential Election held in 2005,but LTTE do not allow tamils to vote. 

Mahinda Rajapakse (19/11/2005-)

Executive President(SLFP)

Faced the tamil ethnic conflict. (Eelam war 4)led by Prabhakaran

2007 Army take control of Batticaloa.

From 1983 onwards more than 70,000 people have died due to ethnic conflict.(up to 2008)


                                                                     Ratnasiri Wickremanayake(21/11/2005-)

                                                                     Prime Minister 


                                                                        (Opposition Leader)

                                                                        (2004 – 2009 Ranil Wickremasinghe)                                              


Sri Lanka statistics. 2007 

Area 65,616 sq km.

Population: 20,296,315

Buddhists:    70%

Hindus:        15%

Muslims:         7.5%

Christians:    7.5%

Tricomalee Post Office

  Historic Colombo

Koneeswaram Hindu Temple

Grand Hotel, Nuwara Eliya, formerly the residence of Governor Edward Barnes

Cinnamon Gardens Baptist Church

Dalada Maligawa 1991

  General Post Office 1891

  Portuguese destroyed Buddhist bTemples in 1557

Tomb of Rajasinghe I

Historical Timeline during the Portuguese Colonial era

1557 Dharmapala hands over Kelaniya Raja Maha Vihara and Daladage to Portuguese, to recover cost incurred while helping Kotte against Mayadunne.

1557 Seven storyed Kithsirimevanpaya in Kelaniya,built by Dambadeniya kings destroyed.

1557 Five storyed Royal Palace converted to Catholic church.And St Barthalomeus Church built on site.

1557 Five storyed Dalada Maligawa of Kotte destroyed.

1557 Buddhist Universities burnt.Monks massacared by Portuguese.

1557 400acre Vidagama Pirivena of Ragama converted to church graveyard.

1558 End of 4 temples-Sinigama Devalaya , Vijayaba Pirivena in Thotegamuwa, Dondra Vishunu Temple,Saman Devalaya Siripada.

1591 Last battle of Jaffna

1615 Portuguese increase the demand of cinnamon 4 times.

1626 Muslims protected by King Senarath,otherwise they would be killed by the Portuguese.Robert Knox has recorded that Muslims were settled in Sinhala areas, and, at least 4000 were settled in Batticaloa.

1628 Peace pact broken and Trincomalee and Batticaloa taken by Portuguese.

1630 Portuguese bring South Indians to Jaffna for Tobbacco cultivation.

Sri Lankan's who fought for Independence


Sir Ponnambalam Ramanathan
Sir Ponnambalam Arunachalam
Dr T B Jayah
Ms Vivienne Gunerwardena
Migethwatte Gunananda Thero
D B Jayathileke
D R Wijewardene
E W Perera
Arthur V Dias
James Pieris
W A de Silva
Sir Razik Fareed
Dr Colvin R de Silva
Sir Muthu Coomarasamy
S A Wickremasinghe
Doreen Wickremasinghe
Mary Rutnam
Selina Perera
EW Jayawardena
H J C Perera
E J Samarawickrema
Daisy Dias Bandaranaike
A E Goonesinghe


Prepared by :Manjula de Livera

Email            :

15th March 2008.