Occupations Held by the Irish in the England Census Records in the 19th Century

Occupations held by the Irish in England varied depending on the County in which they settled. A large percentage of Irish Emigrants were unskilled laborers. Seasonal Agricultural Laborers had been coming to England for years to supplement their income by harvesting crops. Port Cities like Liverpool provided job opportunities for men on the docks, in the chemical industry and soap and sugar factories. They held many of the more undesirable, labor-intensive jobs that others weren't interested in. Irish Women weren't welcomed with open arms as domestic servants in Liverpool, and the lack of a textile industry forced many into jobs on the streets as Hawkers selling a vast array of items. They gathered oakum from old rope and sold it as caulk for repairing boats, sold bundles of wood from disassembled boxes (the "Chip Trade") and they sold the grit they acquired from pulverizing sandstone to clean steps. (Belchem, 2007, p. 27, 33, 37).

The Irish were attracted to Camborne in Cornwall for the opportunities in the Tin Mining Industry in the early 19th century, but left in large numbers with the industries demise in the second half of the century. (Swift, Gilley; Miskell, 1999, p. 23,33). Birmingham attracted the Irish because of its developing industry. Birmingham employed many Irish laborers in the building trade; it also supported a large amount of seasonal agricultural laborers, many of whom stayed permanently as conditions worsened in Ireland. Irish employed as soldiers in the "Queen's Regiment were housed in the neighboring area. Metal trades, Coach works, and the Button trade and Clothing manufacture provided other opportunities. (Swift, Gilley; Chinn, 1999, p. 55,57,68). The Irish were attracted to the north of England, to places like Northumberland and Durham for the Coalmining, Iron Industry and Dock work. (Swift, Gilley; Neal, 1999, p. 77,86,89). Irish Emigrants began arriving in the Wolverhampton area of Staffordshire in the late 18th and early 19th century due to the promising jobs in Railroad, Canal, and Road Construction and the ironworks industry. (Swift, Gilley; Swift Roger, 1985, p. 179). The County of Lancashire attracted a large contingent of Irish emigrants due to the opportunities in the Cotton Mills (weaving and spinning). (O'Connor, 1972, p. 33). Manchester in Lancashire County was the center for a large contingent of Irish workers; attracted because of job opportunities in the Cotton industry (Swift, 2002, p. 36). Textile industry jobs involving woolen cloth and cotton as well as work in the Iron Foundries provided many different employment opportunities that were unavailable in the Port town of Liverpool.

In this section I will document the Irish-held occupations that I have encountered in a search of the England Census Records for Brennans, Corcorans, Coffeys and Gahagans (and all variations) who were born in County Mayo or County Roscommon, Ireland. If an occupation was more specific to certain areas of England, (unlike Laborers and hawkers) I will note the County and civil parishes in which it was noted. This is a work in progress!

Irish-held Occupations in the England Census County and Specific Civil Parish in which the Occupation was noted
Annuitant. A person who holds an annuity. They are the beneficiary of income that is paid at once or at intervals. London- Marylebone;
Annuitant- Customs. London- St George in the East;
Bag Pipe Player. One who plays a bag pipe; an instrument with a wind bag and reed pipes. Lancashire-Blackburn;
Band Boy. Essex- Little Warley;
Barge Man. Lancashire- Warrington;
Basket Girl. A Girl who sells goods carried in a basket, a wicker work container composed of cane, rushes or other material. Lancashire- Liverpool;
Besom Maker. One who makes brooms. Check out this link for a great history of Besoms. A Besom Hawker sells them. Yorkshire- Leeds
Bicycle Fitter. Staffordshire- Wolverhampton.
Bootmaker. Durham- Sunderland; Warwickshire- Birmingham; Lancashire- Halliwell;
Blacking Factory Laborer Lancashire- Manchester;
Blacksmith Staffordshire- Wolverhampton;
Brass Cabinet Lock maker Staffordshire- Wolverhampton;
Brass Dresser. Staffordshire- Wolverhampton;
Bricklayer's, Brickyard or Bricksetter's Laborer, Brickmaker. A bricklayer places the bricks in a construction of a building. A bricksetter stacks "sets" the bricks in the kiln in preparation for firing. In Staffordshire, fire bricks (molded from fireclay) were manufactured in Staffordshire in Towns such as Bilston, Tipton, Walsall, Darlaston etc. The 40 fireclay brickfields in Staffordshire were primarily between Wolverhamtpn, Stourbridge and Old Hill. (Pugh, R.B., 1967, p. 270). Women were often employed as Brick molders. Lancashire-Liverpool,Gorton, Newton, Ashton under Lyne (Workhouse), Blackburn, Hulme; London- Stockport; Yorkshire-Armley, Doncaster, Leeds, Sheffield; Staffordshire- Longton, Wolverhampton; Warwickshire- Birmingham; Worchestershire- Dudley; Leicestershire- Leicester St Margaret; Cheshire- Runcorn;
Calico Weaver by Power- Califco is cloth made from cotton that is dyed and printed. The word Calico comes from Calicut India where the vast majority of the cloth was woven. A ban was placed on importation of Calico Cotton from India into England in 1790 in an attempt to boost the textile Industry in England. A weaver produces cloth with a loom (a power loom in this case). Lancashire, Hulme;
Capmaker. Lancashire- Liverpool;
Cardroom Jobber. Lancashire- Wardleworth, Chedderton;
Carpet Works Feeder. Yorkshire- Halifax;
Carter. Lancashire- Liverpool;
Cattle Dealer. Warwickshire- Birmingham;
Chairbottomer. One who makes the seat portion of the chair. There were 5 Irish emigrants with Chair bottom maker documented on the 1851 Rochdale, Lancashire, England Census. (Swift, Gilley; Neal, 1999, p. 93). Lancashire-Wardleworth;
Chairmaker Lancashire, Great Bolton
Charwoman. "A woman hired by the day to do odd jobs of household work." (Oxford, 1971, p. 384, section 296). Yorkshire- Dewsbury; London- St George; Warwickshire- Coventry St Michael;
Cigar Maker. Lancashire- Liverpool;
Cloth Filler. Yorkshire- Leeds;
Cloth Finisher. Yorkshire-Leeds;
Cloth Sorter. Yorkshire-Leeds;
Cloth Warehouse Laborer. Yorkshire- Leeds;
Coal Dealer. Shropshire- Wellington; Staffordshire- Wolverhampton.
Coal Drawer. Staffordshire- Wolverhampton;
Coal Miner. An individual who works in a Coal Mine Yorkshire- Gomersal, Gildersome, Brinsworth, Darfield; Derbyshire- Chesterfield; Staffordshire- Rugeley, Wolverhampton; Lancashire- Ashton in Makerfield;
Coal Wheeler Staffordshire- Bilston;
Collier. A person involved in the coal industry- who obtains,supplies or handles coal for sale. Staffordshire- Tipton,Walsall Foreign; Lancashire- Ashton in Makerfield, Westhoughton;
Cooper. An individual who makes or repairs items made of wooden staves and hoops such as barrels, tubs. Yorkshire-Halifax;
Corn Porter Lanchashire- Liverpool
Cotton Blower Tenter. Cheshire- Dukinfield;
Cotton Cam Tenter. Lancashire- Newton;
Cotton Carder. Lancashire- Burnley;
Cotton Dyer. An individual responsible for dying the fabric earlier in the production process before carding or upon completion after weaving. Lancashire, Newton;
Cotton Frame Tenter. Cheshire- Dukinfield;
Cotton Lap Carrier? Lancashire- Newton;
Cotton Mill or FactoryHand. An individual who works in a Cotton Mill Lancashire- Newton, Hindley; Yorkshire- Heckmondwike;
Cotton Mill Doffer. "A worker employed in removing the full bobbins or spindles." As things became mechanized: "In a carding machine, a comb or revolving cylinder which doffs or strips off cotton from the cards." (Oxford, 1971, p. 782, section 577). Lancashire- Blackley;
Cotton Mill Roller or Grinder. There were 2 Grinders employed in the Cotton Industry in Leigh, Lancashire in the 1851 England Census. (Swift, 2002, p. 59). Lancashire, Blackley; Cheshire- Newton;
Cotton Mill Spinner. Lancashire- Hulme, Burnley;
Cotton Piecer. An individual responsible for "piecing together" broken fibers that occur in the spinning process at the mill. Lancashire- Great Bolton; Cheshire- Mottram;
Cotton Rover Lancashire- Blackburn and Spotland;
Cotton Sorter. Lancashire- Oldham;
Cotton Speed Tenter. Lancashire- Chedderton;
Cotton Thistle Spinner. "Cotton Thistle is a tall species of thistle, entirely covered with white cottony down." A cotton Thistle spinner is one who spins the cotton. (Oxford, 1971, p 572, section 1045). "Irish males described themselves as spinners, the highest grade of cotton worker." (Swift, Gilley; Neal, 1999, p. 95). Lancashire-Blackburn, Burnley;
Cotton Weaver. An individual who produced cloth by use of a loom (using cotton in this instance) Lancashire- Warrington, Little Bolton, Wardleworth;
Cotton Winder. After the spinning process was complete the winder wound the thread onto the bobbin in preparation for weaving or for sale. Yorkshire- Southowram; Cheshire- Stockport;
Currier's Laborer. Yorkshire- Pudsey;
Dock Laborer- the Irish were employed as Porters on the docks, warehousemen and Lumpers (who discharged and unloaded ships)(MacCraid, 1999, p. 52). Lancashire- Liverpool;
Domestic Servant. A person who is employed doing a variety of household duties. Finding a job for women was difficult in 19th century Liverpool due to the absence of a textile industry and the "reluctance to employ the Irish as domestic servants." (Belchem, 2007, p. 27). Widespread; Lancashire- Ashton, St. Jude, Great Bolton, Liverpool; Yorkshire- Penistone, Bramham, Goldsborough; Warwickshire- Ashton Erdington;
Draper. A cloth merchant who deals with cotton, linen, woolen fabrics and associated products. Lancashire- Manchester (Drapers Asst- Liverpool); Warwickshire- Leamington Priors;
Drawing Room Tenter. Cheshire- Newton;
Dress Embroiderer. Lancashire- Cheetham;
Dress Maker. An individual who makes clothing. Lancashire- Toxteth Park, Hulme; Yorkshire- Leeds;
Dyer. An individual responsible for dying the fabric earlier in the production process before carding or upon completion after weaving. Yorkshire- Horton in Bradford, Wakefield;
Edge Tool Maker. Staffordshire- Wolverhampton.
Egg Merchant. One who sells eggs. "...Irish hawkers sold everything from fish, oysters, salted meat, eggs to hare-skins and shells from the West Indies and Honduras..." (MacRaid, 1999, p. 43). Staffordshire- Longton;
Engine Fitter. One who fits engines. I'm not sure what type are referred to in the Birmingham record. Warwickshire- Birmingham;
Engraver-Artist. Lancashire- Hulme;
Errand Boy. Job often listed next to children's names- one who runs errands for others. Errand boy, servants, labourers, beggers and hawkers were some of the occupations I saw listed for Irish children. Lancashire-Liverpool, Hulme; Warwickshire- Leamington Priors; Staffordshire- Wolverhampton;
Factory Hand Yorkshire- Leeds;
Factory Operator Yorkshire- Keighley;
Farm Laborer. Individual who works on a farm. (Ag Laborer would also fall into this category). Cheshire- Whitley Inferior, Wilton; Lancashire- Manchester, Barton Upon Irwell, Middle Hurton, Radcliffe; Yorkshire- Bramham Cum Oglethorpe, Gomersal, Wakefield; Cheshire- Grappenhall, Preston on the Hill, St. John, Stockport, Whitley Inferior; Worcestershire- Warley Wigorn; Warwickshire- Coventry St Michael, Warwick St. Nicholas, Edgbaston; Staffordshire- Wolverhampton
Farm Servant. Lancashire- Prescot, Melling, Turton; Staffordshire- Stone;
Fiddler. One who plays a fiddle or violin ( an occupation for hire) Yorkshire- Huddersfield;
Fish Curer. Lancashire- Manchester;
Forge Laborer. A person (Blacksmith) who works with a forge, a device consisting of an open heart or fireplace with a bellows to heat iron so that it becomes malleable. (Oxford, 1971, p. 1057, section 450). Staffordshire- Wolverhampton; Lancashire- Warrington;
Forgeman Pudler. Staffordshire- Wolverhampton;
Furniture Dealer. Lancashire- Cheetham;
Fustian Dyer. Fustian was primarily used for making clothes for laborers. This is a person who dyes the fabric. In Stafforshire, i.e, there was one factory that employed 55 in 1871; that number increased steadily to 659 by 1911. Five mills in Staffordshire were involved in manufacture of fustian. They were located at Stoke on Trent, Newcastle Under Lyme, Biddulph and two in Stoke county borough. This industry dissipated after WWII. (Pugh, R.B., 1967, p. 223). Lancashire- Salford;
Galvanizer, Galvanizer-zinc. Galvanizing is a process developed in the 1840's whose aim was to protect the iron base (from rust) by coating it with another material (such as zinc). Staffordshire- Wolverhampton.
Gas Works Laborer. Staffordshire- Wolverhampton.
General Dealer Lancashire- Liverpool;
Gimper. Gimp is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as "silk, worsted or cotton twist with a cord or wire running through it." This trimming is used in furniture, dress and coach lace making. A Gimper is a person who wraps a cord with thread or silk. (Oxford, 1971, p. 1143, section 167). Derbyshire- St Alkmund;
Glazier. A Glass maker. A person who is involved in manufacturing glass ; providing windows for a building or filling windows with glass. (Oxford, 1971, p. 1154, section 209). Cheshire- Mottram;
Groom. a Servant who takes care of horses (on a 500 acre farm in this case) Yorkshire- Paull;
Hackler. A Hackle is used to split or comb out fibres of flax or hemp. A hackler splits, straightens and combs these fibers manually in preparation for spinning. (Oxford, 1971, p. 1237, section 11). Yorkshire- Leeds;
Hatter. Maker or dealer of hats. Lancashire- Liverpool;
Hawker. A peddler or person who sold things on the streets. He often carried his wares around with him, such as matches, delft pottery, etc. Some are listed in the census as licensed. Widespread;
Hawker of Cloth Lancashire, Manchester;
Hawker of Delft Pottery. This refers to the sale of a type of pottery or glazed earthenware that was originally made in Delf Holland. Earthenware Hawker- Lancashire- Liverpool;
Haymaker. A person who lifts, tosses, spreads, cuts and dries grass after it is mowed for hay. Lancashire-Manchester;
Housekeeper Lancashire- Liverpool, Newton, Blackley, Dukinfield, Toxteth Park, Wardleworth; Cheshire- Dukinfield; Yorkshire- Gomersal, Penistone, Halifax; Durham- Bishop Ruckland;
House Painter, Journeyman. A journeyman house painter has completed an apprenticeship in the trade of house painting and is qualified to be paid for his work. Lancashire- Hulme; Staffordshire- Burlem;
House Servant/ House Servant Lancashire- Liverpool; Warwickshire- Coventry St. John;
Inmate Middlesex- St Martin in the Fields;
Inspector- Waste Meter. Lancashire- Liverpool;
Iron Brazier. Staffordshire- Wolverhampton
Iron Master's Laborer. Staffordshire- Wolverhampton.
Jack Frame Tenter- Cotton Mill. A Jack Frame Tenter is a person that runs a Jack Frame in the cotton mill; a machine that twists the thread. Cheshire- Dukinfield;
Japan Scourer. Staffordshire- Wolverhampton.
Japanner Stover. Staffordshire- Wolverhampton.
Knitter of Stockings. Staffordshire- Wolverhampton.
Laborer- Agriculture.- An unskilled farm worker. In a compilation on female occupations produced by Frank Neal based on the 1851 census for Leigh, Lancashire, Agricultural Laborer was most frequently documented job followed by Servant, Washerwoman and Factory worker. It was the top occupation in that area for Irish men as well.(Swift, Gilley; Neal, 1999, p. 91,92). Lancashire- Rainhill; Yorkshire- Doncaster, Easingwold; Stafforshire- Great Barr, Newcastle Under Lyme, Blurton, Perkhull; Warwickshire- Haselor; Northamptonshire- Orton; Cheshire- Northenden; Berkshire- Longcott;
Laborer- Ironworks. Iron making was a prevalent occupation of Irish migrants in the northern part of England in counties like Cumbria, Durham and Northumberland. Lancashire- Little Bolton; Yorkshire- Doncaster, Keighley, Sheffield; Staffordshire- Rowley Regis, Wolstanton, Wolverhampton;
Laborer Widespread throughout England; Laborer- Excavator- Lancashire- Great Bolton; Derbyshire-Bakewell; Coal Laborer- Lancashire- Wigan;
Night Latchmaker's Apprentice. Staffordshire- Wolverhampton.
Laundry Servant/ Laundrefs (sic). Cheshire- Birkenhead; Lancashire-West Derby; Warwickshire- Leamington Priors; Staffordshire- Perkhull;
Limestone Quarryman. One who mines lime stone. Lime stone was mined for many different uses. Until the late 18th century most limestone was burnt and used as fertilizer or to make mortar. In the mid 19th century most of the lime was used in the growing Iron industry. After the 1870's as the iron industry began to decline it was used as "road metal." In Staffordshire, Rushall was one of the primarily centers of limestone mining. (Pugh, R.B., 1967, 193, 196). Durham- Trimdon;
Locksmith. Staffordshire- Wolverhampton.
Lodging Housekeeper. Lodging houses, often overcrowded with multiple families and borders were prevalent in densely populated Irish communities during the famine years. The head of the Household in many Lodging houses appeared to be an Irish Family or even an unmarried male laborer trying to supplement their income. A Lodging Houses Act was passed in 1851 that allowed the police of Wolverhampton, Staffordshire to closely monitor the lodging houses (it was felt that the "overcrowded conditions of these lodging houses tends greatly to disseminate vice and demoralization of every kind..." (Swift, Gilley; Swift, 1985, p. 186). Liverpool also imposed a Sanitary Act in 1846 allowing them to inspect cellars and lodging houses- an intervention to slow the spread of disease. (Belchem, 2007, p. 60). Lancashire-Warrington, Liverpool, Burnley; Cheshire- St John; Staffordshire- Wolverhampton;
Machine Hand (boot?). Yorkshire- Leeds;
Machinist. A person who makes, works or controls a machine or machinery- an engineer. (Oxford, 1971, p. 1687, section 9). Lancashire-Bootle Cum Linacre; Staffordshire- Harborne;
Mantle Washer Lancashire- Liverpool;
Marine Store Dealer. A person who sells materials that are components of old ships such as sails, cordage, ironwork, and other provisions found on a ship. "Marine store dealers operated as the hub of a arter economy which, as Denvir noted, enabled them to develop large businesses in china and Crockery ware, hardware of every kind, fur, wool, and every conceivable article of trade and commerce." Belchem, 2007, p. 37) (from Irish, Catholic and Scouse The History of the Liverpool Irish 1800-1939). Lancashire-Liverpool; Worchestershire- Stourbridge;
Mason's Laborer. Assists an Individual that works with stone, a brick layer. pretty widespread; Yorkshire- Horton, Batley, Elland Cum Greetland, Huddersfield, Barnsley, Northowram; Lancashire- Everton;
Milliner. A milliner sells a variety of small wares such as apparel, ribbons etc. "There was also a considerable workforce employed in the bristol rag trade, particularly milinery..." (Swift, Gilley; Large, 1985, p. 46). Lancashire- Liverpool, Ashton in Makerfield; Yorkshire- Gomersal;
Mould Runner. A mold is a pattern (a type of template) that potters used to shape dishes and other objects or vessels. In this instance I think it refers to the pottery industry that was well known in Staffordshire in the 19th century. It specifically refers to the person who assists the potter. Molds (like plaster of paris molds) enabled the potter to form more unusual, irregular shapes and be less dependent on the wheel and lathe. The pottery industry was centered around Burslem, Tunstall, Hanley ,Stoke, Fenton and Longton in the County of Staffordshire. Burslem had the largest number of potworks in the county by 1776 and was known for its butter pots. (Pugh, R.B 1967, p. 4, 11). Staffordshire- Burslem;
Nail Cutter, Nail Maker. Staffordshire- Wolverhampton.
Nurse. A person who takes care of or is in charge of someone. A nursemaid attends to small children. Lancashire-Blackburn;
Oil Cloth Maker. A person who prepares cloth (linen or hemp for example) with oil to make it waterproof. Warwickshire- Birmingham;
Oiler. Yorkshire- Halifax;
Oil Refiner and Manufacturer Staffordshire- Wolverhampton;
Outfitter. a person or dealer who supplies articles necessary for travel. Lancashire- Liverpool;
Painter. (see house painter, journeyman above too). Lancashire- Wardleworth;
Papermill Worker. A person who works in a papermill where paper is made. Yorkshire- Saddleworth;
Pauper. A poor person dependent on the charity of others. Overwhelming numbers of Irish paupers applied for Poor Relief upon arriving in England during and after the famine. Many in England considered the Irish Paupers to be a burden on the poor rates and sought to send large numbers back to Ireland "under the removal clauses of the poor law... between 1846 and 1853 there were 62,779 removals from Liverpool alone..." (Swift, 2002, p. 74).  
Pensioner- Keeping Lodging House. A person who receives payment to be a Lodging House Keeper. Lodging houses, often overcrowded with multiple families and borders were prevalent in densely populated Irish communities during the famine years. Staffordshire- Burlem;
Piano Tuner. A person who tunes a piano. London- Marylebone;
Picture Frame Maker Lancashire- St Jude;
Plasterer. A person who works with or in plaster. Also noted those who are plaster's laborers. Warwickshire-Leamington Priors; Yorkshire- Rotherham;
Plater. Staffordshire- Wolverhampton.
Police Constable. An officer of the peace, a police officer. Devon- Stoke Damerel; London- St Leonard Shoreditch;
Police Officer. London- St Leonard Shoreditch;
Porter. A Porter can be in reference to a door or gate keeper, but in this instance I believe they are referring to a person who carries or moves items - such as the porters at the docks or porters employed in warehousing goods. Over 25% of the Irish in Liverpool in the 1830's were Porters in Warehouses. (Belchem, 2007, p.33). Staffordshire- Wolverhampton.
Power Loom Weaver. An individual who ran the Power Loom Weaver that made the arduous process of hand weaving obsolete. Yorkshire- Horton;
Priest (Roman Catholic ). London- Chelsea;
Prisoner. Westmorland- Kendal;
Private- Soldier in the Military. A Private is a soldier without rank- a common soldier. Cheshire; Yorkshire- Bradford; Hampshire- Portsmouth, Portsea; Kent- Cheriton; Dorset- Portland;
Provision Dealer. A person who provides provisions such as food and other goods Lancashire- Great Bolton, Manchester;
Quarry Man. A person that works in a quarry. A Quarry is an open air area where stone is escavated for use in construction and other purposes. Irish dominated jobs like this requiring strength and endurance. Yorkshire- Leeds;
Rag Sorter, Dealer. A person who sorts through small fragments or remnants of woven material or clothing that has been degraded by wear and tear. "There was also a considerable workforce employed in the bristol rag trade, particularly milinery..." (Swift, Gilley; Large, 1985, p. 46). Yorkshire- Batley, Wakefield; Staffordshire- Wolverhampton.
Railworker. It is my assumption that this is someone employed in some area of the railway development that grew by leaps and bounds between 1840 and 1850. The Term "Navvies" is often used to describe laborers who worked on the railways.(Swift, 2002, p. 55). "Navvies were renowned for hard work and hard living." The word Navvy was actually a derogatory term in Victorian times. (MacCraid, 1999, p. 46). Yorkshire- Penistone;
Roman Catholic on the Parish? Lincolnshire- Friskney;
Saddler. Staffordshire- Wolverhampton.
Salt Dealer. Staffordshire- Wolverhampton.
Servant. Yorkshire- Bradford; Warwickshire- Birmingham; Worchestershire- Dudley; Lancashire- Huyton and Roby, Manchester;
Ship Laborer. Durham- Monwearmouth Shore;
Shirt Maker. Lancashire- Salford;
Shoemaker. A person whose trade is making shoes. Yorkshire- Leeds, Sheffield; Staffordshire- Wolverhampton.
Shop Boy (Mess?). Lancashire - Toxteth Park;
Shopkeeper Lancashire- Little Bolton;
Silk Reeler. Warwickshire- Coventry St Michael;
Silver Polisher. One who polishes the precious metal, silver. Yorkshire- Sheffield;
Spinner. This was usually a woman's occupation, the spinning of yarn for weaving. Until the "Spinning Jenny" was invented, it was a slow process spinning one thread at a time. Lancashire- Manchester, Blackley, Toxteth Park;
Stay Maker Lancashire- Hulme; Staffordshire- Wolverhampton.
Steelworker Yorkshire- Penistone
Stiffening Shop Worker. I am unsure what this specifically refers to. Stiffening is the last stage in hat making. Lancashire-Manchester;
Stone Breaker for Parish. An occupation in the stone mining industry. Stone mining was a big industry in Staffordshire in the 19th century. There was more sand and gravel mined in Tipton than in any ofther county in England by 1895. Much of the stone mined in Tipton was used to build locks and bridges. (Pugh, R.B., 1967, p. 290). Staffordshire- Tipton;
Stone Miner. One who mines stones in a quarry. Bilston was one of the major stone mining areas in Staffordshire. Stones were used to make grind stones and Bilston was known for their fine grindstones. Staffordshire- Bilston;Yorkshire- Southowram (stone delver);
Tailor. Individual who makes or repairs clothing. "Slop journeymen Tailors" from Ireland, desperate for any work created shoddy goods in cheap shops, lowered the wages made by quality master tailors. This and their overwhelming numbers led to impoverished Irish in the trade. (Belchem, 2007, p. 38). (Irish, Catholic and Scouse History of the Liverpool Irish). Lancashire- Oldham, St. Jude, Great Bolton, Liverpool, Tailoress- Ashton Under Lyne; Yorkshire- Leeds;
Tanner's Laborer. A Tanner is a person who tans hides in the process of turning them into leather. Cheshire- Grappenhall;
Tinner's Laborer. Staffordshire- Wolverhampton.
Throstle Doffer. I am unsure what this is. A Doffer is one who removes cotton from a bobbin or spindle in the production process if a machine isn't used to "doff" the cotton off the cards. "Cotton Thistle is a tall species of thistle, entirely covered with white cottony down." (Oxford, 1971, p. 572, section 1045). Nine "throstle piecers" were listed as cotton industry occupations in the 1851 Rochdale, Lancashire England Census. (Swift, Gilley; Neal, 1999, p. 94). Lancashire- Wardleworth;
Tin Worker. A "tinner" is a person who works with tin like a tin plater or a tinsmith. It also refers to a person who digs tin ore- a tin miner. A Tinner would be a tin worker. Warwickshire- Birmingham; Staffordshire- Wolverhampton.
Tobacco Worker. Yorkshire- Leeds;
Tray Polisher. Staffordshire- Wolverhampton;
Turner? Apprentice. Lancashire- Gorton;
Ultramarine Works Laborer. Lancashire- Sutton;
Under Carter? Warwickshire- Allesley;
Vest Maker. Lancashire- Liverpool.
Ward Room Hand in Collar Mill Cheshire
Warehouse Porter. person who carries or moves items; warehouse stock. Lancashire-Liverpool;
Weaver of Cloth. Yorkshire-Leeds;
Wharf Laborer. London- St George in the East.
Woodyard Laborer. Yorkshire-Leeds.
Wool Comber. An individual who operates a machine that separates or combs fibers for spinning. Yorkshire- Bowling;
Woolen Piecer. An individual responsible for "piecing together" broken fibers that occur in the spinning process at the mill. Yorkshire- Huddersfield;
Woolen Scrubber. After the weaving process, the scrubber, cleaned the cloth with an ammonia solution to remove the oil, dirt, and size. Yorkshire- Horton;
Woolen Weaver. Yorkshire- Gildersome;
Worsted Factory Hand (Mill Hand). Worsted is a type of woolen fabric or material that is composed of "well twisted yarn spun of long-staple wool combed to lay the fibres parallel. A Worsted Factory hand is involved in the process of converting this material into a "fine and soft woolen yarn used for knitting and embroidery."(Oxford, 1971, p. 3827, section 324-325). Yorkshire- Wakefield, Elland Cum Greetland, Horton in Bradford, Pudsey;
Worsted Spinner. A person who spins the worsted yarn that becomes cloth. Yorkshire- Horton, Horton in Bradford;