Ireland's History in Maps - Ancient Uladh, Ulidia, the Kingdom of Ulster
Ancient Uladh
Kingdom of Ulster

Uladh * Kings of Uladh * Annals of Uladh
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Background on Uladh

Some of the early "references" of tribal names in Ulster come to us from scholars translating the map of Ireland that Ptolemy provided in the middle of the 2nd century. Little is known of these tribal names, or exactly where and if they existed under these names. For purposes of sharing one version of these translations the following paragraph is drawn from Samuel Lewis in the early 19th century.

About the time of Ptolemy (c.150 AD) the tribes of the Vennicnii and the Rhobogdii are translated to be near the modern county of Donegal, prior to the arrival of the sons of Niall in the 4th century, that is Eoghan of Cenél Eóghain, Conall Gulban of Cenél Conaill, Enda of Cenél nEnnae and Cairbe of Cenél Cairpre. Ptolemy also mentions the country of the Darnii, or Darini, possibly in the present county of Derry, prior to the rise of the O'Cathains, a branch and tributary to the O'Nialls (Northern Uí Neill). In the present county of Antrim the Darnii or Darini are also inferred from Ptolemy, prior to the rise of the Dal Riata in that area. In the present county of Tyrone, the Scoti and sometimes the Erdini are said to be translated from Ptolemy's early map, prior to the rise of power of the Cineal Eoghain (Tir Owen, Tyrone). The present county of Down and southern Antrim has traditionally been known under the name Ulagh, with the Voluntii or Uluntii inferred from Ptolemy, prior to the rise of the Dal Fiatach and Dal nAraide branches of Ulidia. The Uí Eathach Cobha were also prominent in Down in descent from the Dal nAriade. Modern county Armagh, the home of the ancient capitol of Ulidia (Uladh), that is Emhain Macha, was mentioned by Ptolemy as home to the Vinderii and Voluntii, prior to the establishment of Oirgialla by the three Collas in the 4th century. It has also been translated from Ptolemy that the Scoti inhabited modern county Monaghan, and that the Erdini (Ernaigh) may have inhabited modern counties Fermanagh and Cavan. Click here for a Physical Map of the Ulster region.

The folklore of early Uladh (eastern Ulster) is recorded in many of the early Irish Annals, which include such volumes as the Annals of Ulster, the Annals of the Four Masters, etc. This folklore cites Ir, the fifth son of King Milesius (from Spain), as progenitor of some of the earliest tribes of Ulster. Ir and his brothers, Heber and Heremon, were claimed to arrive in Ireland with an expeditionary force from anywhere between the 17th to the 6th centuries B.C., and to have spawned many of the noble families of Ireland. Thus is one of the earliest and more enduring of Irish legends, that of the Milesian race.

The Leabhar na gCeart [Book of Rights] describes Uladh originally including the the whole province of Ulster, from Bun Drobhais, the river Drowse, county Donegal, to Inbher Colpa, the mouth of the river Boyne, but after the destruction of Eamhain Macha by the 3 Collas, A.D. 332, it was restricted to the territory east of the river Bann, Lough Neagh, and the Newry river.

Other than the tribes of Uladh, the central and western portions of the province of Ulster were, by about the 4th and 5th centuries, held by the clans of the Airghialla, as well as the powerful northern Uí Neill clans of the Cenel Eoghain and Cenel Conaill, among others in this group. This page will focus on the eastern portion of the province of Ulster, often referred to as the territory of the Ulaid and Cruithne.

An ancient territory in Ulster, referred to in these texts as Uladh, Ulaid and Ulidia, was noted to be the home of the Ulaid and the Cruithne tribes, e.g. the Dál Fiatach, Dál Araidhe, Uí Eathach Cobha, Conaille Muirtheimhne, Leth Cathail, and the Dál Riada, among others. An ancient cultural center for the Ulaid was at Emhain Macha, in modern county Armagh, before being driven east by the incursion of the three Collas. A later center for the Dál Fiatach was established at or near modern Downpatrick in county Down.

Keating in his History gives the following placenames in Ulaid Greater or Lesser:
Aenach Alti, Árd Bó, Árd Mic Nascai, Árd Srátha, Bennchor, Bruden Blai Briuga, Cassán Linne, Cell Aedáin, Cell Duinsige, Cell Lomchon, Cell Ruaidh in Dál Araide, Cell Sléibe, Ciannachta Glinne Geimin, Conaille Muirtheimne, Daire Dachonna Dál mBuachalla, Dál mBuinne, Doire Luráin, Druim Bó, Druim Niad, Dún Dá Lethglas [Downpatrick], Enach Elte, Fir Manach, Iubar Cind Tráchta, Lann Abaich, Latharna Maige Molt [Larne], Leth Cathail, Liathros, Loch Cuan, Loch n-Echach, Loch Láig, Mag Deisitin, Maginis, Nóindruim, Ráith Colptha, Saball, Sliab Cuilenn, Tech Eóin, Úi Echach.

The ancient Uladh genealogies cite Clann Conaill Cernaich, of the line of Ir, a quo Dál n-Araide, and the Úi Echach Ulad, and the Conaille Murthemni, and the Laígsi Laigen (of Leinster), and the Sogaine (of Connacht). The Dál Fiatach (Clan Con Ruí, probably named from Fiatach Finn) and the Dál Riata (named from Cairbre Riada) are cited in the line of Heremon.

The Uí Eochadha, later anglicized as Haughey, O'Hoey and Hoy, were noted chiefs of Uladh (Ulster) in the 10th century. The ancestors of the Uí Eochadha were lords in the county Down and south Antrim area for many centuries. It is interesting to review the extensive list of the kings and lords of Uladh (Ulidia) over many centuries as noted in the early Irish Annals and Genealogies below.

By the time of the Norman Invasion in the late 12th century the Mac Mac Duinnshléibhe (MacDonlevy) sept, named for their late 11th century ancestor Donn Slébhe Ua h-Eochadha, were chiefs of Uladh. The end of many centuries of Ulidian power, although dramatically reduced in the 4th and 5th centuries, came with the defeat of the MacDonlevys by John de Courcy in 1177.

The Magennis (MacGuinness) sept, lords of Iveagh, are stated to be descended from the Dal Araidhe. Their lineage cites ancestry from Saran, a 5th century chief of Dal Araidhe during the time of St. Patrick, and continues through the line of the Eathach Cobha of the Iveagh area of County Down.

Other names included on the list of Ulster Kings were referenced as Ua Mathghamhna and Ua Flaithrí.

The Tribes of Uladh
as cited in the genealogies and annals

Uladh, Ullagh, Ulaid and Ulidia were ancient names for the territory in the modern Irish province of Ulster, related in particular to the eastern portion of the province. The Dal nAriade and the Dal Fiatach were the ruling dynasties for much of Uladh's history. By the 4th and 5th centuries much of the western and central portions of Ulster began to be dominated by the tribes of the northern Uí Neill and the Oirghialla.

The Annals and the early genealogies cite many of the Kings of Ulaid back through the mists and myths of time, with some of the early Monarchs of Ireland in descent from Ir and from Heremon, sons of Milesius. Numerous events with connections to early Ulster are cited in the Annals of the Four Masters.

Dál Fiatach - also referred to as the Ulaid. Their territory appears to have been along the coast of modern County Down from about the 6th century. They contended for the kingship of Uladh (Ulidia) with the Dál n-Araidhe for many centuries. The Dál Fiatach are cited in descent from clainn Con Ruí, son of Dáire, son of Dedaed. Further citation gives the lineage from Fiatach Find, son of Dáre, son of Dluthaigh (Forgo?), a quo Dál Fiatach, an early king of Ireland.
Prior to the rise of the sept of Mac Donnsleibhe (MacDonlevy) at the end of the 12th century, the sept of O hEochaidh (Haughey or O'Hoey) were styled kings of Ulidia.

An early genealogy of some of the Dál Fiatach kings of Ulaid, from the line of Heremon:   (Rawlinson)
Donnchad m. Néill m. Eochada m. Arddgail m. Matudáin m. Áeda m. Eochucáin m. Áeda m. Echdach m. Fiachna m. Áeda Róin m. Béicce Bairche m. Blaithmeicc m. Máel Coba m. Fiachnae m. Duib Thuinne m. Demmáin m. Cairill m. Muredaich Mundeirg m. Forgo m. Dalláin m. Lugdach m. Rossa m. Imchada m. Óengusa Find m. Fergusa Dubdétaig m. Imchatha m. Findchada m. Ogamuin m. Fiachach Fir Umai m. Dáire m. Dlúthaich m. Deitsin m. Echdach m. Sin m. Roshin.

An alternate genealogy of some of the Dál Fiatach kings of Ulaid (clann Aeda):     (Laud 610)
Eochu m. Ardgair m. Matudain m. Aeda m. Eochucain m. Aeda m. Echdach m. Fiachnai m. Aeda Roin m. Bece Bairche m. Blaithmeic m. Maile Coba m. Fiachnai Duib Tuile m. Demmain m. Cairill m. Muiredaigh Mundeirg m. Forgo m. Dallain m. Dubthaig m. Miennaig m. Ludgach m. Oengusa Find m. Fergusa Dubdhetaig m. Imchado m. Findchado m. Fiatach Find (a quo Dal Fiatach) m. Fir furmi m. Dairi m. Dluthaig m. Deitsini m. Echach m. Sin m. Rosin m. Trein m. Rothrein m. Rogein m. Arndil m. Mane Mair m. Forgo.

Some early chiefs of Dál Fiatach -- Fergus Dubdétach mac Imchada -- Fiachu Find -- Eochu Gunnat mac Féicc -- Daig -- Muiredach Muinderg mac Forgo -- Cairell -- Baítán.

The Annals cite:
Also see Kings of Ulster

Dal Riada - in descent from Cairbre Rioghfhoda (Ríada), son of Conaire, in the line of Heremon. Dal Riata was the tribal and territorial name of the early tribes of County Antrim, particularly the northeast portion. The area later known as the Route (Rúta), in northern co. Antrim, is often equated with the Dal Riada. The Dal Riada extended their kingdom into Scotland probably during the 3rd to the 7th centuries. The early term that the Romans referred to these and other tribes from Ireland was the "Scoti", thus the legend of where Scotland received its name.
An ancient genealogy of Dal Riata cites their common ancestor as Glass mac Nuadait Argatlám of clan Úgaine Mor, from whom are Síl Cuind & Dál Riata & Ulaid & Laigin & Ossairgi. Keating cites in his History, "For Eochaidh Muinreamhar, a descendant of Cairbre Rioghfhada, had two sons, namely, Earc and Olchu. From Earc are descended the Dal Riada of Alba, and from Olchu the Dal Riada of Ulster, from whom the Ruta is called."
Four chief families of Dal Riada (Irish kingdom in Scotland) included the Cineul nGabhrain, Cineul Loairn máir, Cineul Aonghusa, and Cineul Comhghuill.

The Book of Ballymote provides this early list of Irish kings of Dal Riata: Aengus Turmech (of Tara), Fiachu Fer-mara, Ailill Erand, Feradach, Forgo, Maine, Arnail, Ro-Thrir, Trir, Ro-Sin, Sin, Dedad, Iar, Ailill, Eogan, Eterscel, Conaire Mor, Daire Dornmor, Coirpre Crom-chend, Mug-lama, Conaire Coem, Coirpre Riata (Cairbre Rioghfhoda), Cindtai, Guaire, Cince, Fedlimid Lamdoit, Fiachu Tathmael, Eochaid Antoit, Aithir, Laithluaithi, Sen-chormac, Fedlimid, Angus Buaidnech, Fedlimid Aislingthe, Angus, Eochaid Muin-remor, Erc, Fergus [Mor mac Earca of circa 500 AD].

An early lineage of the Dal Riata:   (Rawlinson)
Áengus Teamrach (81st Monarch), father of Fiachu Fer-mara, father of Ailill Érann, father of Feradach, father of Forgo, father of Maine Mór, father of Arndail, father of Rothrer, father of Trer, father of Ro-Sin, father of Sin, father of Dedad, father of Iar, father of Ailill Anglonnach, father of Éogan, father of Eterscél (95th Monarch), father of Conaire Mór (97th Monarch), father of Cairpre Finn Mór, father of Dáire Dornmór, father of Cairpre Crommchenn, father of Lugaid Allathach, father of Mogh Lamha, father of Conaire, father of Eochaid (Cairpre Riata), father of Fiachra Cathmáil, father of Eochaid Antóit, father of Achir Cirre, father of Finn Fiacc, father of Cruithluithe, father of Senchormac, father of Fedelmid Ruamnach, father of Áengus Buaidnech, father of Fedlimid Aislingthe, father of Áengus Fert, father of Eochaid Muinremar, father of Erc, father of Fergus Mór mac Earca.

It has been stated that the kingship of Dal Riata was moved to Scotland with Fergus mac Earca and his descendants, and that later in the 6th century the lords of the Dal Riata in Ireland were also allied with their southern neighbors, the Dal Fiatach.
One line of descendants of Fergus mac Earca is cited as:
  • Ferchar, son of Connad Cerr, son of Conall, son of Comgall, son of Domangart, son of Fergus mac Earca.
    Another line is cited as:
  • Cinead (Kenneth), son of Alpin, son of Eochaid, son of Aed Find, son of Eocgaid, son of Eochaid, son of Domangart, son of Domnall Brecc, son of Eochaid Buidhe, son of Aedan, son of Gabran, son of Domangart, son of Fergus mac Earca.
    Still another line is cited as:
  • Fianamhail, son of Dunchad, son of Duban, son of Duncath, son of Eoganan, son of Gabran, son of Domangart, son of Fergus mac Earca.

    The Annals cite:

    Cruithne - The Cruithni (Cruithin) of ancient Ulidia were said to occupy an area of south Antrim and north Down, athough they are generally referred to as an early indigenous population located in various parts of eastern Ulster. The Cruithin were noted to have been driven east of the river Bann by the encroachment of the Cenél Eóghain beginning in the 6th century. Their name is given as the Q-Celtic version of Pritani (Welsh Prydyn). As such they are often cited as an ancient people with ties to the Picts, of Ireland and Scotland, although it is not strictly correct to talk of the Ulster Cruthin as Picts since the latter followed a matrilinear regnal succession, as opposed to the Irish derbfhine system.

    The dynasty of Dál n-Araidhe whose kings resided east of Antrim town in Mag Line emerged as a dominant group among the Cruithne.

    The Annals cite:

    Dál n-Araidhe - referred anciently with the Cruithne of southern Co. Antrim and northern Co. Down. Dalaradia, considered a part of ancient Ulidia, was the name of the territory in southern County Antrim (and part of Down) where St. Patrick was held as a slave during his young manhood. Other tribes in Ireland with genealogical connection to the Dál n-Araidhe included the Loígis of Leinster, and the Sogain of Connacht.

    Northern branches of the Dál n-Araidhe included those of Eilne on the western side of the river Bann in co. Antrim. They were encroached upon by the Airghialla as the Ui Thuitre were pushed to expand their territory east of the Bann by the rise of the Ui Neill, beginning in the the 7th & 8th centuries. By the 10th century the Ui Thuitre had acquired the territory of the Eilne branch of Dál n-Araidhe.
    The Dal n-Araidhe in co. Antrim included the Ua Loingsig kings who ruled Magh Line (Moylinny) from Lisnalinchy. Magh Line is described the Circuit of Ireland, by Muirchertach in the barony and county of Antrim, from Lough Negh to near Carrickfergus.

    An early geneaolgy of the Dal Araide is cited as:   (Rawlinson)
    Domnall m. Conchobuir m. Echrí m. Flathroí m. Áeda m. Loingsich m. Meicc Étich m. Lethlabair m. Loingsich m. Tomaltaich m. Indrechtaich m. Lethlabair m. Echach Iarlathi m. Fiachnae m. Báetáin m. Echdach m. Condlae m. Cóelbad m. Cruind Ba Druí m. Echach m. Lugdach m. Rossa m. Imchada m. Feidelmid m. Caiss m. Fiachach Araidi [m. Áengus Goibnenn m. Fergus Gallen m. Tipraiti Tírech m. Bressal Brecc m. Ferb m. Mál m. Rochride m. Cathbad m. Giallchad m. Condchad m. Findchad m. Muiredach Finn m. Fiachu Findamnas m. Iarél Glúnmár m. Conall Cernach.

    As noted in the name Loingsich (above), and from statements in the Annals for the 11th and 12th century, the Lynch sept were medieval chiefs of Dal Araidhe. Edward McLysaght cites Lynch with connections to the Dal Riada who were close neighbors and later allies of Dál n-Araidhe. The O'Lynn (O'Floinn) sept is also noted here in 1176.

    Legendary chiefs of Dal nAraide: Cermna -- Sobuirche -- Sétna Artt -- Fiachu Findscothach -- Ollam Fótla -- Fínnachta -- Slánoll -- Géde Ollgothach -- Berngal m. Géide -- Ailill -- Find m. Blátha -- Sírlám -- Argatmár -- Áed Ruad -- Díthorba -- Cimbáeth -- Macha (queen) -- Rudraige -- Bressal Bódíbad -- Congal Cláringnech -- Fachtna Fáthach -- Éllim m. Conrach -- Mál m. Rochride -- Cóelbad m. Cruind.

    The Annals cite:

    Uí Eathach Cobha - was centered about the baronies of Upper and Lower Iveagh in County Down. There are various citations for the term Uí Eathach, and Uí Eachach, in the Ulster region. Uí Eathach Uladh is often given as an equivalent of Uí Eathach Coba (O'Donovan). The Ui Echach bega and the Ui Echach móra, of Síl Colla Focrích (the race of Colla-dá-chrich), are noted by MacFirbis and in the Book of Ballymote. One of both of these may realate to the Uí Echach of Oirgialla, in Tuath Echach, comprised the barony of Armagh, in modern county Armagh, as suggested by Leabhar na gCeart and by O'Donovan's edition of Topographical Poems of O'Dugan and O'Heerin).

    The Uí Echach na hÁrda, of the ards of county Down, are given in descent from Eochaid Gunnat in the Book of Leinster. The Cinel-Eachach are noted by Seamus O Ceallaigh in the Airghiallian kingdom of Ui Fhiachrach of Ard Sratha (Ardstraw, Co. Tyrone). The Cenél Echach ín chodaig are noted (in H. 2, 7, T.C.D.) as a branch of the Bredcha (Brédach) in descent from Eochaid mac Eogain.
    Note: Not ot be confused with Uí Echach in Munster.

    An ancient genealogy of the Uí Eathach, an offshoot of the Dál n-Araidhe, is cited as:   (Rawlinson)
    Flaithbertach m. Echmílid m. Áeda m. Echmílid m. Áeda m. Echmílid m. Óengusa m. Aitíd m. Laigne m. Blaithmeic m. Domnaill m. Conchobuir m. Bresail m. Fergusa m. Áedáin m. Mongáin m. Sáráin m. Maine m. Fothaid m. Conaill m. Cóelbad m. Cruind Ba Druí m. Fráechair m. Fergusa m. Lugdach m. Rossa m. Imchatha m. Feideilmid m. Caiss m. Fiachach Araidi m. Óengusa Goibnenn m. Fergusa m. Tipraite m. Bressail Bricc m. Briúin m. Feirbb m. Máil m. Rochride m. Cathbath m. Ailchada m. Cuindchatha m. Findchatha m. Muiredaich m. Fiachach Findamnais m. Iaréol Glúnmáir m. Conaill Cernaig m. Amargin m. Caiss m. Fachtnai m. Capai m. Ingai m. Rudraige m. Sittride m. Duib m. Fomuir m. Argatmáir m. Sírláim m. Find m. Blátha m. Labrada m. Ollaman Fótla m. Fiachach Fínscothaig m. Sétnai Airt m. Ébricc Bricc m. Ébir m. h- Ír m. Míled Espáine.

    Another early genealogy of the Uí Echach Coba is cited as:   (Rawlinson)
    Congal m. Áeda m. Garbíth m. Écertaich m. Lorccáin m. Cernaich m. Máel Bresail m. Ailella m. Feideilmid m. Máel Cothaid m. Fergusa m. Áedáin m. Mongáin m. Sáráin m. Maine m. Fothaid m. Conaill m. Echach Coba (a quo Úi Echach Coba) m. Cruind Ba Druí.

    The Annals cite:

    Conaille Muirtheimhne - the Sil Conaill Glaiss centered about the barony of Dundalk in County Louth. The Irish Nennius cites their lands extending to Mag Fothaid, Mag Uisnig, and Mag Mogna, Mag Sulide, Fernmag, Mag Mache, Inber Buasse, and Iath Aiche. Their early genealogy is closely tied to that of Uí Eathach Cobha, their neighbors to the north.

    An early genealogy of the Conaille Murthemni is cited as:   (Rawlinson)
    Cináed m. Muiredaich m. Ingeirrce m. Congalaich m. Meicc Étich m. Cuilennáin m. Máel Brigti m. Speláin m. Sluagadaich m. h-Uargalaich m. Uchtbrain m. Uarcride m. Dícolla m. Coluimb m. Oissíne m. Crónáin m. Dúngaile m. Colmáin m. Cairill m. Conaill m. Echdach m. Cruind Ba Druí.

    The Annals cite for the term Conaille:

    Cuailgne - or Cuailnge. According to the Leabhar na gCeart the kings of Ulaid at one time paid stipends to the kings of Cuailgne, Araide, Coba and Muirthemne. Cuailgne is remembered in the parish of Cooley in county Louth according to the Lebor na hUidre, an area around and between Carlingford lough and Dundalk. O'Donovan places the mountains of Cuailgne near Carlingford, and in his notes mentions the Ui-Meath-Mara, seated in Cualigne.
    Muirthemne, Cuailgne and Cobra (leg. Coba) were "the three provinces of which Eogain Mac Conaill was King" (Codex Salmanticensis). K.

    The Annals cite:

    Leth Cathail - Leth Cathail is said to consist of the baronies of Upper and Lower Lecale, in county Down, locally called "Isle Lecale," anciently Magh Inis. Cenél Aengusa were kings of Leth Cathail, according to MacFirbis, who also describes the Ui Morna of this region. Ua Flathraoi is cited as a chief of Let Cathail in the 12th century.

    Leth Cathail is described as a subdivision of Uladh, the "half" belonging to Cathal, son of Muireadhach, son of Aonghus, son of Maolcobha, son of Fiachna, son of Deaman, a king of Ulidia. Literally, it was "Cathal's Half of Dál Fiatach". As such the early genealogy of the Leth Cathail is an offshoot of the Dal Fiatach, and is cited in Rawlinson B502 as:
    Cú Ulad m. Gillai Domongairt m. Óengusa m. Flathróe m. Cummascaich m. Máel Mochéirgi m. Indrechtaich m. Comaltaich m. Cummascaich m. Cathaláin m. Indrechtaich m. Tommaltaich m. Cathail (a quo Leth Cathail) m. Óengusa m. Máel Choba m. Fiachnae m. Demmáin m. Cairill m. Muiredaich Muindeirg. (Rawlinson B502)

    The Annals cite:

    Kinelarty - named for the Cenel Foghartaigh, e.g. Mac Artán, whose territory at one time included the present baronies of Kinelarty, Dufferin (Dubthrín) and part of Castlereagh, in county Down. According to Keating the Mac Artán genealogy derives from the same origins as the Dál n-Araidhe and Uí Eathach, his genealogy citing the line of Mac Artán descending from Sárán m. Cóelbad m. Cruind Ba Druí m. Echach m. Lugdach m. Rossa (of clann Conaill Cernaich).

    The Annals cite:

    Uachtar Tíre - described in Onomasticon Goedelicum as west of the inner bay of Dundrum, placing it perhaps in the southern part of county Down. The genealogies of Rawlinson B502 place Uachtair Tíre in relation to the Airghialla, e.g. Airthir and Uí Nialláin.

    An early genealogy of Uachtair Tíre:   Rawlinson)
    Niall m. Gillai Fechín m. Néill m. Fergusa m. Cummascaich m. Écertaich m. Lorcáin m. Cernaich m. Máel Bressail m. Ailella m. Feidelmid m. Fiachrach Cassáin m. Colla Fochríth.

    The term is not to be confused with Uachtar tíre in Mag Luirg, northern co. Roscommon; or with a former name of the barony of Upperthird, in co. Waterford.

    The Annals cite:

    Dál mBuinne - alias Muintir Branáin, in Moylinny, east of Lough Neagh in the south of modern county Antrim. The territory is described in The Irish Nenenius (Hogan) in the barony of Upper Masserene and also in the parishes of Kilwarlin and Drumbo. As such, their land may be considered a buffer area between the dominent Dál Fiatach and Dál nAraidi. The name Dál mBuinne is preserved in the medieval rural deanery of Dalboyn. The Dál mBuinne are claimed to descend from the Ulaid, where they have a minor reference in the genealogies of Rawlinson B502 and Laud 610 (Dal mBuindi). The Book of Lecan tells us the chief families of the Dál mBuinne region included Dál Corbna Fuama, Dál mBuain, Cenél Máeláin, Uí Nádsluagda (or Dásluaga), Cenél nErnain and Gailine and Dál mBuachalla. A sept of Mac Serraigh (Mac Sherry?) are noted as later chiefs of Dál mBuinne.
    The Dál mBuain, and Dál Cuirb, and Monaigh Arad, are called from 3 grandsons of Capha (Cabha), in county Down, according to O'Curry's Lectures on the Manuscript Materials of Ancient Irish History. Cited in O'Laverty's History of Down and Connor, the territory of Dál mBuain (aka Dal Buinne according to O'Hart) included the parishes of Drumbeg, Drumbo, Hillsboro, Blaris, Lambeg, Derryaghy, Magheragall, Magheramesk, Aghalee, Aghagallon, Ballinderry, and Glenavy. The Book of Lecan and other genealogies cite the Dál mBuain descending from Buan, son of Scannlan.

    The Annals cite:

    Monaig - The Journal of the Ulster Place-name Society places the Monaigh Uladh in the region of Downpatrick, which is located in the barony of Lecale (Leth Cathail). The Book of Lecan notes the Monaich Ulad of Rusat, and the Monaigh of Lough Erne. O'Curry in his Manuscript Materials mentions Monaigh Arad, being called from one of the three grandsons of Capha, in county Down.
    Reeves' Antiquities of Down, Connor and Dromore places the Cenél Maelche, a sept of the Ulidians of Dal-Araidians or Dal Fiatach, near Moira (Mag Rath), county Down, or in Antrim, alias Monach. The Annals of the Four Mastersnotes Cearran, son of Colman, chief of Cenél Mailche, was slain, in alliance with the Dal-Araidhe in the year 912, at Carn-Ereann near the Ravel Water in Ulster. The Book of Ui Maine places the Cenél Mailche in Monach.
    The annals make note of Mac Giolla Epscoip (e.g. Mac Gillespie) as a chief of Clann Aeilabhra, rector of Monach-an-Dúin, legislator of Cath Monaigh. O'Donovan places the Clann Ailebra in county Down (Four Masters). MacLysaght (More Irish Families) places these Mac Giolla Epscoips, chiefs of Aeilabhra in the barony of Iveagh, county Down; later becoming erenaghs of Kilraine in couny Donegal.
    The Book of Lecan mentions the place-name Magh Monaigh, the four "prímthuatha na Bredcha" in Magh Monaigh in Ulster being the Cenél Dogfa, Clann Corcráin, Ui Thacain, and Artraidi. It goes on to note the Cenél Cridain in Magh Monaigh, in Ulster.

    As tradition has it the the ancient Manaigh or Monaigh occupied the area near Lough Erne, giving their name to the modern county of Fermanagh. The Journal of the Ulster Place-name Societyalso noted their presence in county Down. The Monaig are often associated with the Manapioi (Menapii), a maritime Belgic tribe of Northern Gaul who are noted on Ptolemy's 2nd century map of Ireland in southeast Ireland. They spread northwards as the Fir Manach, or Monaig in Irish. Early Irish genealogists claim they migrated from south Leinster, their descent from the ancient Laiginian ancestor-god, Catháer Máir.

    An early Manach genealogy (among the Uladh pedigrees):   (Rawlinson)
    Ragnall m. Cernaich m. Gillae Brigte m. Coscraich m. Cenndubáin m. Duiligén m. Galáin m. Cainnecháin m. Máel Tochaid m. Gilluráin m. Inglaind m. Comgaill m. Corccáin m. Manaich m. Ailella (Móir) m. Féicc m. Dáire Barraich m. Catháer Máir.

    The Annals cite:

    Uí Labhradha - the 'extended family' name later represented by the Laverys (Lowry, et al), who were centered in the neighborhood of the parish of Moira in northeast county Down. O'Dugan, in his 14th century compilation cited in Topographical Poems (ed. O'Donovan), mention the O'Labhradha as a noble sept of the county Down area. McLysaght (Irish Families) mentions that branches of the family were called Baun-Lavery, Roe-Lavery and Trin-Lavery. He also notes that Trin-Lavery became Armstrong in some cases, due to mistranslation. According to Reeves (Antiquities of Down, Connor and Dromore) the Laverys held many townlands in the parish of Moira and in neighboring Magheralin, early in 17th century.
    It should be noted that the Scottish Lauries, Lawries etc. who immigrated to Ireland during the time of the Ulster Plantation of 1609 are said to have become known as Lavery and Lowry (which became O'Lowry).

    The Annals cite:

    Uí Blathmaic - an area which included the north part of the barony of Ards, and much of the barony of Castlereagh, according to John O'Donovan. In Reeves' Antiquities of Down, Connor and Dromore it's name was preserved, for a time, in the deanery of Blaethwyc, or Blathewic, which later became the deanery of Newtownards.
    The name Blathmaic occurs in the genealogies and the Annals as Blathmaic mhic Maoilchobha, a king of Uladh about the 7th century. An expanded genealogy in Rawlinson cites: Fiachna m. Áeda Róin m. Béicce Bairche m. Blaithmeicc m. Máel Coba m. Fiachnae m. Duib Thuinne m. Demmáin m. Cairill m. Muredaich Mundeirg.

    Craebh Ruad - In Topographical Poems (ed. O'Donovan), O'Dugan-O'Heerin appear to use the term Craebh Ruad (the Red Branch) as a reference to an area in and around modern county Down. In this poem they mention the following place-names, i.e. the peaky Boirche (barony of Mourne); Cuailgne land of cloaks (an area about Carlingford Lough); Magh Rath (Moira, alias Ráith Ruad, in Uib Echach Ulad); and Dun da leathghlas of cloaks (Downpatrick). Here he cites the chief kings of Uladh as O'Duinnsleibhe and O hEachadha. He goes on to mention their 'nobles and plunders', i.e. O hAidith, O hEochagain, O'Labhradha, O'Leathlobhra, O'Loingsigh, and O Morna. From here O'Dugan enumerates the chieftains of the area as: O'Mathghamhna; O'Coinne and O'Gairbhith, sub-chiefs of Ui-Eachach Cobha; O hAinbhith, a chief king; Mag Aenghusa, over Clann-Aedha; MacArtain, by charter the Cinel-Faghartaigh; Mag Dubheamhna, over Cinel-Amhalghadha, O'Mornha, the props of Uladh; Mag Duilechain, of the angles, over Clann Breasial; and O'Coltarain, over Dal Cuirb.

    What other references can be found for the septs that O'Dugan-O'Heerin list in the poem?
    O hEachadha (Haughey or O'Hoey) and O'Duinnsleibhe (MacDunslevy), in common lineage as kings of Dál Fiatach ; Annals.
    O hAidith (Ua hAidith, lords of Ui-Eathach [Iveagh] ; Annals)
    O hEochagain (O'Haughan??, perhaps descendants of Eochagan, 9th-10th century kings of Ulidia ; Annals)
    O'Labhradha (Lavery, Lowry, et al., centered near Moira and Magheralin in co. Down ; Hogan and McLysaght)
    O'Leathlobhar (?? -- Ua Leathlobhair, lords of Dal-Araidhe ; Annals -- lineage of O'Loingsigh? ; Annals)
    O'Loingsigh (O'Lynchy/Lynch??, Ua Loingsigh, kings of Dál Araide ; Annals)
    O Morna or O'Mornha (?? -- in Leth Cathail ; MacFirbis -- 13th century king of Ulidia ; Annals)
    O'Mathghamhna (O'Mahan?? -- Donnchadh Ua Mathghamhna, King of Ulster, slain at Damliacc Beannchair [Bangor?] ; Annals)
    O'Coinne (?? -- Maelisa Ua Coinne, the most learned of the Irish in history, in judicature, and in the Ord-Padraig, died ; Annals)
    O'Gairbhith (O'Garvey, of co. Down; MacLysaght -- lord of Conaille Muirtheimhne??, lord of Uí Méith?? in co. Louth/Armagh ; Annals)
    O hAinbhith (O'Hanvey, Ua hAinbith, king of Uí Méith?? in co. Louth ; Annals)
    Mag Aenghusa (MacGuinness, Magenis, et. al., lords of Iveagh, in the baronies of Iveagh, and Lecale, and part of Mourne; Annals)
    MacArtain (MacArtan, chiefs of Cinel Fogartaigh, now the baronies of "Kinelarty," and Dufferin ; Annals and O'Hart)
    Mag Dubheamhna (Devany, Duffeny, Dooney, Downey??, chief of Cinel Amhalgaidh in co. Down ; O'Hart)
    Mag Duilechain (Doolecan or Doolan??, chief of Clan Breasail MacDuileachain, near Kinelarty, in the barony of Castlereagh ; O'Hart)
    O'Coltarain (Coleton, Coulter??, chief of Dal Cuirb, in the barony of Castlereagh ; O'Hart)

    Laígsi Laigen - The early genealogy of the Laígsi Laigen cite Lugaid Loígsech son of Conaill Cernaich. From the Laígsi are said to descend the O'More chiefs of County Leix (Laios) in Leinster. Also see the Tribes of Laigin (Leinster).

    Sogaine - Co. Mayo/Galway. Ó Mannáin (Mannion), McWards, O'Scurrys (Scarrys), O'Lennans, O'Casins, O'Gillas, O'Maigins and O'Dugevans (Duggans). Among the Ui Máine dwelt the Sogain, a Cruithin (Pict) tribe, and the Dal naDruithne believed to be Tuatha De Danann Celts. Also see the Kingdom of Connacht.

    Monarchs of Ireland
    with Ulster Connections

    - Legendary monarchs of Ireland descended from the line of Ir, son of Milesius, were of clan Ollaman of Ulster, i.e. the Dal Araide of Fir Ulaid, and included:

    brothers Cearmna and Sobhrach (Sobuirche), 15th monarchs of Ireland (Deaths: circa 1492 BC).
    lineage: Cearmna and Sobhrach m. Ebric m. Ébir m. h-Ír mc Míled Espáine.

    Seidnae, 23rd monarch of Ireland (Death: circa 1352 BC).
    lineage: Sétna Artt [m. Artraich m. Airtt m. Ebric] m. Ébir m. h-Ír mc Míled Espáine.

    Fiacha Fionn-Scothach, 24th monarch of Ireland (Death: circa 1332 BC).
    lineage: Fiacha Fínscothach m. Sétnai Airtt [m. Artraich m. Airtt m. Ebric] m. Ébir m. h-Ír mc Míled Espáine.

    Eochaidh Ollamh Fodhla, 27th monarch of Ireland (Death: circa 1277 BC).
    lineage: Ollamh Fodhla m. Fiachach Fínscothaich m. Sétnai Airtt [m. Artraich m. Airtt m. Ebric] m. Ébir m. h-Ír mc Míled Espáine.

    Fínnachta Fionn-sneachta, 28th monarch of Ireland (Death: circa 1257 BC).
    lineage: Fínnachta m. Ollamh Fodhla m. Fiachach Fínscothaich m. Sétnai Airtt [m. Artraich m. Airtt m. Ebric] m. Ébir m. h-Ír mc Míled Espáine.

    Slánoll, 29th, monarch of Ireland (Death: circa 1240 BC).
    lineage: Slánoll m. Ollamh Fodhla m. Fiachach Fínscothaich m. Sétnai Airtt [m. Artraich m. Airtt m. Ebric] m. Ébir m. h-Ír mc Míled Espáine.

    Gedhe Ollghothach, 30th monarch of Ireland (Death: circa 1228 BC).
    lineage: Gedhe m. Ollamh Fodhla m. Fiachach Fínscothaich m. Sétnai Airtt [m. Artraich m. Airtt m. Ebric] m. Ébir m. h-Ír mc Míled Espáine.

    Fiacha Finnailches, 31st monarch of Ireland (Death: circa 1208 BC).
    lineage: Fiacha m. Fínnachta m. Ollamh Fodhla m. Fiachach Fínscothaich m. Sétnai Airtt [m. Artraich m. Airtt m. Ebric] m. Ébir m. h-Ír mc Míled Espáine.

    Bearnghal, 32nd monarch of Ireland.
    lineage: Bearnghal m. Géide Ollghothaich m. Ollamh Fodhla m. Fiachach Fínscothaich m. Sétnai Airtt [m. Artraich m. Airtt m. Ebric] m. Ébir m. h-Ír mc Míled Espáine.

    Olioll (Ailill), 33rd monarch of Ireland.
    lineage: Ailill m. Slánoll m. Ollamh Fodhla m. Fiachach Fínscothaich m. Sétnai Airtt.

    Fionn, 42nd monarch of Ireland (Death: circa 929 BC).
    lineage: Find m. Blátha m. Labrada m. Cairpri m. Olloman Fótla.

    Sírlám, of Ráith Cochláin, 49th King of Ireland (Death: circa 855 BC).
    lineage: Sírlám m. Find. m. Blátha m. Labrada m. Cairpri m. Olloman Fótla m. Fiachach Fínscothaich m. Sétnai Airtt.

    Argethamar, 58th King of Ireland (Death: circa 747 BC).
    lineage: Argatmáir m. Sírláim mc Find m. Blátha m. Labrada m. Cairpri Olloman m. Olloman Fótla m. Fiachach Fínscothaich m. Sétnai Airtt.

    Áed Ruad, a quo Ulaid of Ehmain Macha, 61st King of Ireland (Death: circa 730 BC).
    lineage: Áed Ruad m. Baduirn m. Argatmáir m. Sírláim mc Find m. Blátha m. Labrada m. Cairpri Olloman m. Olloman Fótla m. Fiachach Fínscothaich m. Sétnai Airtt.

    Díthorba, a quo Ulaid of Ehmain Macha, 62nd King of Ireland (Death: circa 730 BC).
    lineage: Díthorba m. Dímaín m. Argatmáir m. Sírláim mc Find m. Blátha m. Labrada m. Cairpri Olloman m. Olloman Fótla m. Fiachach Fínscothaich m. Sétnai Airtt.

    Cimbáeda, a quo Ulaid of Ehmain Macha, 63rd King of Ireland (Death: circa 730 BC).
    lineage: Cimbáed m. Fintain m. Argatmáir m. Sírláim mc Find m. Blátha m. Labrada m. Cairpri Olloman m. Olloman Fótla m. Fiachach Fínscothaich m. Sétnai Airtt.
    King Cimbáeda was claimed to have built Emhain Macha (Navan) near Armagh (around 300 B.C.?)

    Macha Mongrua, a quo Ulaid, 64th Monarch (Queen) of Ireland (Death: circa 653 BC).
    lineage: Macha Mongruadh ingen Áeda Ruaid m. Baduirn m. Argatmáir m. Sírláim.

    Rudhraighe Mor, a quo Dál n-Araide, 86th King of Ireland.
    lineage: Rudraige mc Sittride m. Duib m. Fhomuir [m. ...] m. Argatmáir m. Sírláim m. Find m. Blátha m. Labrada m. Carpri m. Ollaman Fótla.

    Breasal Boidhiobhadh, 88th King of Ireland.
    lineage: Breasal m. Rudhraighi m. Sittride m. Duib m. Fhomuir m. Argatmáir.

    Congal Claroineach, 90th King of Ireland.
    lineage: Congal m. Rudhraighi m. Sittride m. Duib m. Fhomuir m. Argatmáir.

    Fachtna Fathach, 92nd King of Ireland
    lineage: Fachtna m. Rossa m. Rudhraighi m. Sittride m. Duib m. Fhomuir m. Argatmáir.

    Fiatach Finn, a quo Dál Fiatach, 103rd King of Ireland (line of Éremón, son of Mílesius)
    lineage: Fiatach Find m. Dáire m. Dlúthach (Forgo) m. Deithsin m. Eochaid m. Sin m. Roshin m. Trer m. Rothrer m. Airndil m. Maine Mór m. Forga m. Feradach m. Ailill Érann m. Fiachu Fer Mara m. Áengus Tuirmech -- through Ugaine Mor onto -- hÉremón m. Míled Espáine.

    Éilim (Éllim) Mac Connrach (Condrach), 105th King of Ireland
    lineage: Éilim mac Connrach mac Fergusa i. m-Maig Bolg.

    Mál, of m-Maig Line, 107th King of Ireland.
    lineage: Mál mac Rochraidhe m. Cathbad m. Giallchad m. Condchad m. Findchad m. Muiredach Finn m. Fiachu Findamnas (Dál n-Araidhe).

    Colla Uais, a quo Airghialla, 121st King of Ireland (line of Eber, son of Milesius).
    lineage: Colla Uais m. Eochaidh Doimhlen m. Cairbre Liffechair.

    Cóelbad, of the Dál n-Araidhe, 123rd King of Ireland.
    lineage: Cóelbad mac Cruind Ba Druí m. Echach m. Lugdach m. Rossa m. Imchada m. Feidelmid m. Caiss m. Fiachach Araidi (a quo Dál n-Araidhe).

    The mythical king of Ulster, Conor mac Nessa (Conchubar), Son of Nessa and Cathbad (the druid), and grandson of Rory Mor, king of Ulster is stated as living at the time of Christ. He took the crown from Fergus mac Roich. Other legendary chiefs at that time included Conall Cearnach, Fergus Mac Roi, Laoghaire, Dubhtach, and Scet.

    Further Ulster Reference: Airghialla * Northern Ui Neill * Kings of Uladh * Annals of Uladh

    Further Province Reference: Index * Connacht * Leinster * Mide * Munster * Ulster

    Further Reference at this site:
    Ireland History in Maps - Home Page
    Old Irish Surnames
    Kingdoms and Clans

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