Ireland's History in Maps (1500 AD)
Ireland's History in Maps

        1400         1600
Maps: BC . 100 . 150 . 200 . 300 . 400 . 500 . 600 . 700 . 800 . 900 . 1000 . 1100 . 1200 . 1300 . 1400 . 1500 . 1600 . 1700 . 1800 . 1845

Reference:   Old Irish Kingdoms and Clans -- Old Irish Surnames

The independent nature of the Anglo-Irish lords and parliament, as well as the Gaelic chieftains, were a problem for late 15th century England. The power of local lords was the dominant political influence in Ireland, and most of the country was under the rule of Gaelic or Gaelicized lords. The real political clout in Ireland was in the hands of the Earls of Kildare ever since the Ormonds backed the losing Lancastrian side of England's War of Roses, and after the rebellion of the Desmonds around 1468. In 1494 king Henry VII sent Sir Edward Poyning to help bring the settlers more into step and legislation was passed at Drogheda which restated categorically the subordinate position of the Irish parliament to the English parliament.

In 1534, Henry VIII tried to regain England's influence in Ireland. He took all power away from the 'rebelling' Earls of Kildare, Norman-Irish noblemen who had long controlled English interests in Ireland, and Henry set up more direct control. In 1541, Henry succeeded in having Ireland's Parliament declare him king of Ireland. He established English laws in Ireland and tried, with little success, to introduce Protestantism in the country. When Henry broke with the Catholic Church, he instigated the Protestant Reformation which would eventually set the deeply Catholic Irish on a collision course with the zealously Protestant English. What followed was, at first, a gradual replacement of Anglo-Irish politicians, landowners and clergy with those more 'sympathetic' to the Crown. In 1536-37 Irish monastic property was declared confiscate to the Crown and the Anglicized Church of Ireland became the sole legal religion in the lordship of Ireland. In 1553 to 1558, the plantation of English and Scottish settlers began in counties Antrim, Monaghan, Limerick, and in Queen's county. Plantations were soon started in portions of central Kerry, eastern King's county, northest Down, western Waterford and sections of counties Cork and Tipperary. The introduction of plantations was to dominate Irish politics down to 1641.

Further Reference:
Wars of the Roses (at Wikipedia)
Protestant Reformation (at Wikipedia)
Province History - Ancient Irish Genealogy and Geography

        1400         1600

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