The Canadian Military Heritage Project - French Indian Wars (Colonial Wars). Find your military ancestors and learn their history.
Canadian Military Heritage Project - Find your military ancestors!

Canadian Military Heritage Project
FIND YOUR MILITARY ANCESTORS!

Search free Canadian ancestors' letters Find Canadian ancestors in in free searchable military databases for each war and rebellion Canada has been involved in. Build your family tree, and rediscover history. Find your military roots and learn your military history.

FIRST NAME

LAST NAME

LOCALITY

Guide to Finding a Loyalist Ancestor in Upper Canada (Ontario) will help genealogists find their Loyalist ancestor. Explanations are given for each of the set of records available for research. The reader will learn how to manoeuver through the more challenging obscure records.

Available in paperback or as an e-book on Amazon.ca and Amazon.com

Home | Site Map | Free Olive Tree Genealogy Newsletter | Search this site

 

Genealogy & History
Search Ships passenger lists, census, vital stats, church records, military, find your ancestorsOlive Tree Genealogy ships passenger lists to Canada
Search Ships passenger lists, census, vital stats, church records, military, find your ancestors Images of Ships Passenger Lists
Search Ships passenger lists, census, vital stats, church records, military, find your ancestors AllCensusRecords.com USA & Canada Census Records
Search Ships passenger lists, census, vital stats, church records, military, find your ancestorsLoyalist Genealogy
Search Ships passenger lists, census, vital stats, church records, military, find your ancestors Canadian Genealogy
Search Ships passenger lists, census, vital stats, church records, military, find your ancestors Military Records Military records for USA & Canada
Search Ships passenger lists, census, vital stats, church records, military, find your ancestors NaturalizationRecords.com at Naturalization Records USA & Canada
Search Ships passenger lists, census, vital stats, church records, military, find your ancestors Past Voices: Letters Home Poignant old letters
Search Ships passenger lists, census, vital stats, church records, military, find your ancestors Lost Faces Find ancestors in Old Photo Albums Rescued
Search Ships passenger lists, census, vital stats, church records, military, find your ancestors The Paper Trail Find ancestors in Old Documents online
Search Ships passenger lists, census, vital stats, church records, military, find your ancestorsAncestors At Rest - Death records
Search Ships passenger lists, census, vital stats, church records, military, find your ancestorsGreat War (WW1) Homepage

... Partner Sites
Genealogy Newsletter
Find your ancestors, build your family tree for FREE! JOIN the FREE Olive Tree Genealogy Newsletter. Be the first to know of genealogy events and freebies. Find out when new genealogy databases are put online. Get tips for finding your elusive brick-wall ancestor.
Genealogy History Books
Genealogy & History Books
Documents Online!
Paper Trail - Assorted Documents: Wills, land records, marriage certs, passports, indentures, slave records, estate inventories...
Family Bibles
AncestorsAtRest - Death Records: Wills, obits, funeral cards, memorial cards, death cards...
Past Voices Scads of letters from 1800s & 1900s
Visitor Favourites

 

Overview of the French Indian Wars

by Lorine McGinnis Schulze

The French and Indian War (1754-1763)was the last of four North American wars waged from 1689 to 1763 between the British and the French, with their respective Native American and colonial allies, for domination in the New World.

Britain's victory relieved France of its North American empire, thus ending the series of conflicts, which were known collectively as the French and Indian Wars. Although the war began in America, it expanded (1756-1763) into Europe as the Seven Years' War, and into Asia as the Third Carnatic War.

The war originated in the breakdown of a three-way balance of power, in which the Iroquois Confederacy had occupied the middle ground between French and British colonies and had successfully kept both out of the Ohio Valley. This Valley was strategically important.

During the last years of King George's War (1744-1748), however, English traders had penetrated into the Ohio country and established relations with tribes that had previously traded only with the French. Also in the late 1740s, the Ohio Company began making efforts to found a settlement at the forks of the Ohio. These developments convinced the governors-general of Canada that in order to protect their own strategic interests in the American interior they would have to dominate the Ohio Valley militarily. In 1753 the French began building a chain of forts from Lake Erie to the forks of the Ohio, and there in 1754 they built Fort Duquesne. By resisting British expansion westward, France was in hopes of uniting, through this chain of forts, its Canadian empire with possessions as far south as New Orleans.

The building of French forts was something that Governor Robert Dinwiddie of Virginia could not ignore. In 1753 he tried unsuccessfully to warn them of their intrusion into English territory; the next year he sent an armed force under the command of George Washington to expel them. The French defeated Washington's troops at the Battle of Fort Necessity (July 3-4, 1754) and sent them back to Virginia. The French and Indian War had begun.

The War

In 1755 the British general Edward Braddock was sent to America to take Fort Duquesne. In July, however, near the fort, a French and Native American force badly defeated Braddock's British regulars and colonial troops. The British won a small victory in Nova Scotia and repulsed an attack by French and Native American forces in New York at the Battle of Lake George in 1755, but these were their last victories until 1758. Meanwhile, the British government sought to impose central control on the war effort in America and to force the colonists to pay for the campaigns against Canada; these measures only alienated the Americans. The years 1755-1757 were distinguished by defeats and friction between British and colonial soldiers, while the French and their Native American allies won battle after battle.

England's poor performance ended when William Pitt came to power in 1757. During the first two years of the war, French and Native American forces had been victorious. In 1757, however, the British statesman William Pitt was given complete charge of British foreign policy and appointed the British general James Wolfe to command the troops in the New World. Pitt made victory in America his top priority and began a series of well-coordinated campaigns. Pitt also began treating the Americans as allies rather than subordinates. The result was a major reversal.

In 1758 Anglo-American forces seized the fortress of Louisbourg, the key to the Saint Lawrence River; destroyed Fort Frontenac on Lake Ontario, severing the supply lines of the Ohio forts; and captured Fort Duquesne. A force under General James Wolfe defeated the French main army at Québec in 1759, and the following year General Jeffrey Amherst completed the conquest by forcing the surrender of the last defenders of Canada at Montréal.

Results of the War

The Treaty of Paris (1763) ended the French control in Canada, which went to Great Britain. France also ceded all its territories east of the Mississippi River to the British. In compensation for the territories west of the Mississippi given by France to Spain a year earlier in a secret treaty, Spain had to give Florida to the British. The war determined that English rather than French ideas and institutions would dominate North America.

In winning the war, however, the British government had doubled its national debt and acquired more territory than it could control. Attempts by British politicians to reform the administration of the empire and to raise revenue by taxing the colonies soon antagonized the colonists and eventually precipitated the American Revolution.

Lost Faces Ancestor Photos from the 1800s

Wishing you had an ancestor photograph? Check out the 1800s photographs and antique photo albums on Lost Faces. There are over 2,500 photos in this growing genealogy collection

Ancestry.com Databases

* 1825 Census of Lower Canada
* 1842 Census of Canada East
* 1851 Census of Canada East, Canada West, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia
* 1861 Census of Canada
* 1871 Canada Census, head of house index only
* 1871 Canada Census with images
* 1881 Canada Census (no images)
* * 1881 Canada Census

* 1891 Canada Census
* 1901 Canada Census
* 1906 Canada Census for Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta
* 1911 Canada Census
The Naval Service of Canada: Its Official History
Ontarian families : genealogies of United-Empire loyalists and other pioneer families of Upper Canada
Rebellion of 1837, Upper Canada
War of 1812: Miscellaneous Canadian Records
Smith's Canadian gazetteer
The Canadian biographical dictionary

Find Military Ancestors

Soldiers of the First World War (CEF) searchable database
Courts-martial of the First World War
War Diaries of the First World War
Soldiers of the South African War, 1899 - 1902
Second World War Service Files: Canadian Armed Forces War Dead
Soldiers of the South African War, 1899 - 1902
Second World War Service Files: Canadian Armed Forces War Dead

Your ancestors' names may be waiting for you!

Great news! Ancestry is offering several different FREE trials of their most popular databases. These databases include history and genealogy records Ancestry.com and Ancestry.ca free trial
   

These pages may be linked to freely but not duplicated without written consent.
These pages are copyright © 2002 - present
CMHP graphic copyright © by Canadian Military Heritage Project

Search Canadian Military Heritage Project for yourWar of 1812 ancestors The Poppy is a Trademark of Dominion Command, Royal Canadian Legion, and is used on The Canadian Military Heritage Project with permission