Revised November 17th, 1999. Your comments and suggestions would be appreciated.
Note: (English --> Flemish/Dutch; plural = -en or -s suffix )
bowling = krulbollen
A disk about 7" round but shorter along one edge is slid off the hand
on a curved path towards a wooden peg.)
Boer -en = landbouwer -s [land --> land; bouwer --> builder] = farmer
Boerin -nen = landbouwster -s = farmer's wife
Bread = brood [tarwebrood= wheat flour bread; roggebrood= rye flour bread; masteluinbrood= bread made from half rye and half wheat flours
Catechism = principles of the Roman Catholic religion in the form of questions and answers
Cart (small) of a peddler = winkelwagentje [winkel = store; wagen = wagon; -tje = little (diminutive)]. Also cart = kar, as in groentekar (green things = vegetables), melkkar (milk), viskar (fish), ijskar (ice) and hondenkar if pulled by a dog.
Centime = 1/100th of a Belgian Franc
Cholera = choleraic (A bacterium-caused disease due to fecal contamination of food and/or water by poor sanitary conditions causing massive fluid loss as diarrhea; aggravated by previous undernutrition)
Daily wage worker = dagloner -s [dag = day; lon = wage] also daghuurman [dag = day; huur = hire]
Farmer = boer -en = landbouwer -s [land --> land; bouwer --> builder]
Farmer's wife = boerin = landbouwster -s
Farmhands (male) = knecht -en, landknecht -en, boerenknecht -en [land = land, boeren = farmer + knecht = servant] Usually hired for a half year but some stayed on the same boerderij for years.
Farm workers = landbouwwerklieden [landbouw = farming; werk = work; lieden = people, folk]
Farmstead = farmhouse, barns, other out buildings and land = boerderij -en
Flax rotting = retting This was necessary to loosen the bundles of flax fibers from the woody core of the stems. There were two ways: one was by 'dew retting' in which the flax was laid in the fields where a combination of bacteria and molds loosened th fibres in the mild moist climate. The other way was the soak it in a water-filled hole, the vlasroot, covered with mud for 5- 7 days.
Hectare 1 hectare = about 2.5 acres
Kilometer = about 0.6 miles
Klompen = wooden shoes
Maid (female farm worker) = meid -en [meid --> maid]
Money = 1 Franc = 100 centimes
Mussel peddler = mosselleurder -s [mossel = mussel; leurder= peddler, hawker]
Proletariat = economic term for wage-earners (collectively) who have no capital and are dependent on sellng their labor.
Proletariatianization (as used on this website) = loss of their land by small farmers (boeren) who then became dagloners or knechten or worked from a merchant who "put-out" raw materials to them for processing.
"Putting-out" = explanation
Sandwich or slice of bread with a topping = boterham -men [boter --> butter] or [varkensvet, smout --> rendered pork fat, salted for flavour]
School (boarding)= usually private and residential school= pensionat
Tenant farmer = boerderijpachter -s [boerderij = farmstead; pachter = leaser]
Tenant's rent = pachtgeld Most farmers owned none or very little of the land they worked. They were tenants who had to pay rent for the use of the land and sometimes for their house too.
Transient workers = kortwoners
Typhus = tyfeus which is caused by a Rickettsial organism transmitted by bites of mites, fleas, lice and ticks; associated with bad housing and poor personal hygiene.Typhus is not the same as typhoid caused by typhoid bacteria spread by fecal contamination of water and food.
Wattle-and-daub = A wall construction of a network of branchs and twigs plastered with clay
Walloon = "Wallonië", the part of Belgium where "Walloon", a language related to French is spoken
Wheelbarrow = porters' wagon = kruiwagen [kruier = porter + wagen = wagon]